ACCESSING THE INTERNET FROM THE KEYBOARD


                              BY

                          JOHN WILSON

                           Volume 1

                        Copyright 2006

                           ********

                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

(To find a particular section or heading, use your word-
processor's or editor's search facility, e.g. type ">section 6"
to find that section. Include the greater than sign (>(
immediately prior to the words Section 6, so that you will only
stop on that main heading instead of any earlier reference to
that section. The > sign is found on the capitalised full stop.
Type the string "internet service provider details" or type the
specific paragraph number of "12.3." to find that subheading.
Additionally, all main sections are separated by a centred row
of eight asterisks.)

Foreword and Restrictions
Available Manual Formats
Target Group
Conventions
Suggested Approaches for Effective Reading of this Tutorial

Section 1: Introduction
1.1. What is the Internet and How do Visually Impaired People
Access it?
1.2. General and Specific Talking Screenreaders for Web Browsing 
1.2.1. JAWS for Browsing the Internet
1.2.2. Window-Eyes for Browsing the Internet
1.2.3. HAL for Browsing the Internet
1.2.4. PWwebspeak for Browsing the Internet
1.2.5. Wemedia for Browsing the Internet
1.2.6. Home Page Reader for Browsing the Internet
1.2.7. Webbie for Browsing the Internet
1.3. JAWS, HAL, Supernova and Window-Eyes Special Web Page
Navigation Hot Keys
1.3.1. JAWS 4.0, 4.5, 5 and 6 
1.3.2. HAL 5, 6 and 6.5
1.3.3. Window-Eyes 4.2, 4.5 and 5
1.3.4. Windows Operating System Shortcuts
1.4. More Advanced Surfing
1.5. Free Virus-Checkers, Firewalls, Spyware and Spam removers
1.5.1. AVG Free Edition Versions 6 and 7
1.5.2. Sygate, Zone Alarm and Windows XP Free Firewalls
1.5.3. Ad-Aware Free Spyware Remover Version 6
1.5.4. Mail Washer Free Spam Remover
1.5.5. Spybot Search&Destroy

Section 2: Helpful Tips and Customisation for Visually Impaired
Users

2.1. Eighteen Configuration, Customisation and other Helpful Tips

Section 3: Using the Internet via an Internet Service Provider
(ISP)
3.1. Types of ISPs
3.2. What you need to Get connected with a Standard or BroadBand
MODEM
3.3. Getting Your Windows PC Set Up for a PPP Connection
3.4. Connecting to Your ISP
3.5. Making Changes to or creating a new Internet Connection
3.6. Solid Step-by-Step Example of Subscribing to a Pay-As-You-Go
ISP Service and Creating a Desktop Shortcut to it--The UK2 ISP
Service
3.7. List of UK Dial-Up Services (non-broadband)
3.8. List of UK Broadband Providers
3.9. Broadband Over the Mains Provider
3.10. Changing Your Broadband Provider

Section 4: Internet Explorer Versions 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0
4.1. Internet Protocols, Server Names and File Paths
4.2. Launching Internet Explorer
4.2.1. Launching Internet Explorer from its Executable File on
Your Hard Disk
4.2.2. Creating a Shortcut and Launching Internet Explorer from
It
4.2.3. Other Methods of Launching Internet Explorer
4.2.4. Starting Internet Explorer with a Blank Page or Starting
it with a Specific Home Page Automatically Loading
4.3. Internet Explorer Temp File Cache Size
4.4. What are Web Pages and How are They Read
4.5. Reading Web Pages Offline
4.6. E-Mail Links on a Web Page
4.7. The Internet Explorer Favourites Folder
4.7.1. Using the Favourites Folder and Adding More Favourites to
It 
4.7.2. Viewing the Contents of Your Favourites Folder
4.7.3. Creating Folders and Sub-Folders within Favourites
4.7.4. Organising, Deleting, renaming, Printing Out and making
other Modifications to favourites 
4.7.5. Saving and Exporting a copy of Your Favourites Folder and
of Your Cookies for Safe Keeping or for Use on Another Computer 
4.8. Saving a Page or Opened file in Internet Explorer
4.9. Downloading a File from the Net or Opening it Online
4.10. Doing Two Things at Once in Internet Explorer
4.11. Sending a Copy of a Web Page or Link to Someone Else
4.12. Setting Privacy Levels and Obtaining a Report of a
Website's Privacy Policy
4.12.1. Setting Privacy Levels
4.12.2. Obtaining a Privacy Report of the Current Site 
4.13. Manually Completing Forms
4.14. Roboform Automatic Forms Completion Software
4.15. Quick and Easy Web Access with Microsoft Powertoys
4.16. VIPS Accessability Gateway
4.17. Testing the Accessability of a Website
4.18. Quick Commands Context Menu for a Link
4.19. Turning On or Off Automatic Disconnection to Your ISP
4.20. Ensuring that Your Online Transaction Details are Not
Automatically Saved to Disk 
4.21. Viewing the History List of Already Visited Web Pages and
their Contents
4.22. The Internet Explorer Help System

Section 5: Taster Sites to Find Files and Programs
5.1. Website Walk-Through Example

Section 6: Web Search Engines
6.1. Starting a Search Engine
6.2. Standard search Engines
6.2.1. Yahoo!
6.2.2. Altavista
6.2.3. Raging
6.2.4. Ask Jeeves
6.2.5. MSN Search
6.2.6. CD Wizard
6.2.7. UK-Based Specific Search Facilities 
6.2.8. Accessible Result Specialist Search Engine
6.2.9. UK Traders and Shops Search Engine
6.3. Meta-Search Engines
6.3.1. Google and its Family of Utilities
6.3.1.1. Using Google with a Screenreader and Availability of
Scripts
6.3.1.2. Narrowing Searches Down in Google
6.3.1.3. Using the Google Advanced Search facility
6.3.1.4. The Google Image Search Feature
6.3.1.5. Google's Goods Catalogue Searching Feature
6.3.1.6. Google's International News Search feature
6.3.1.7. Google's Print Book Search Facility  
6.3.1.8. Google's E-Mail and Website Service
6.3.1.9. Google Desktop Search
6.3.1.10. Google Scholar Scientific and Academic Specialist
Research Searching Feature
6.3.2. Alltheweb
6.3.3. Seti-Search
6.3.4. Dogpile
6.3.5. Astalavista 
6.3.6. YouSearched
6.3.7. Vivisimo
6.4. Finding Companies
6.5. Finding People
6.6. Finding News and Public Records
6.7. The Outlook Express Quick People Search Facility

Section 7: E-Mailing Overview
7.1. E-Mail Address Components
7.2. Web-Based E-Mail Providers
7.3. 1-Step--Voice E-Mail

Section 8: E-Mailing with Microsoft Outlook Express Versions 5.0,
5.5 and 6.0
8.1. Pen-Picture of the Outlook Express Screen
8.2. Outlook Express E-Mailing Options and Customisation for
Visually Impaired People
8.3. Composing and Sending E-Mail
8.4. Sending or Forwarding Multiple E-Mails Simultaneously
8.5. Undelivered E-Mail
8.6. Receiving and Reading E-Mail
8.7. Finding an E-Mail Message
8.8. Deleting E-Mail Messages
8.8.1. Deleting Single Messages or Whole Folders of Messages
8.8.2. Deleting Groups of Messages by Conversation/Subject
8.9. Viewing Only Specific Mail and News Messages
8.10. Replying to E-Mail
8.10.1. Replying to the E-mail Sender Only
8.10.2. Replying to all Recipients of an E-Mail
8.11. Forwarding E-Mail to Other People
8.12. The Outlook Express Address Book
8.12.1. What is the Address Book and what can you do with it?
8.12.2. Quickly Inserting a Contact's E-Mail Address into the
"To" Header if you Cannot Remember It
8.12.3. Manually Adding Someone to your Address Book/Contacts
List
8.12.4. Moving to the Address Book and Finding an Entry
8.12.5. Using the Address Book Find People Feature
8.13. E-Mail Address Groups (Distribution Lists)
8.14. Saving and Moving E-Mail
8.15. Importing and Exporting 
8.15.1. Importing Messages, Address Books and Account Settings 
8.15.2. Exporting Messages, Address Book Details, Account
Settings and Other Files 
8.15.3. Where Outlook Express Keeps its Data Files and How to
Save them and Move them Elsewhere
8.16. Dealing with File Attachments
8.16.1. Attaching a File
8.16.2. Opening and Saving an Attachment
8.17. Inserting Text into an E-Mail Message
8.18. Jump to Links in E-mail
8.18.1. Jumping from E-Mail to a Website
8.18.2. Inserting Jump to Links into your E-Mail
8.19. Sender's E-Mail Address Identification
8.20. Obtaining a Received Message Verification Receipt
8.21. Blocking and Unblocking Specific E-Mail Messages 
8.22. Using Message Rules to Sort and Reply to Messages
8.22.1. Step-by-Step Example 1: Filtering Specific Messages into
a Newly Created E-mail Folder
8.22.2. Step-by-Step Example 2: Automatically Replying to E-mail
Messages when Away From Home or the Office 
8.23. Obtaining Website Content by E-Mail
8.24. Using shorthand Emoticons in Your E-mails 
8.25. Shortcut Menus
8.26. Sending Coloured Business-Type HTML Formatted E-Mails with
Pictures or Sounds
8.27. Accessing your E-mail Whilst Away from Home
8.27.1. Accessing E-Mail whilst Abroad 
8.27.2. Accessing E-Mail whilst elsewhere in Your Own Country
8.28. Breaking Large Messages into Smaller blocks for E-Mailing
8.29. Setting up an Hotmail or other Account
8.30. Using Imap to Manipulate Your E-Mail 

Section 9: Joining Mail Lists and News Lists
9.1. The Listserv Server

Section 10: Usenet Newsgroups
10.1. What are Usenet Newsgroups?
10.2. component Parts of Newsgroup Names and What They Mean 

Section 11: Reading Newsgroups with Outlook Express Versions 5.0,
5.5 and 6.0
11.1. Launching Outlook Express as a News Reader
11.2. Subscribing to Newsgroups
11.3. Deleting a Newsgroup
11.4. Pen-picture of the Outlook express Screen
11.5. Basic Online News Reading
11.6. Filtering News Messages
11.7. Deleting Messages and Headers
11.8. Responding to an Article with Outlook Express
11.9. Introducing a New Topic

Section 12: Reading Newsgroups with Forte Agent and Free Agent
Versions 1.92
12.1. Downloading Agent and Free Agent
12.2. Installing Agent or Free Agent and downloading Newsgroups
12.3. Internet Service Provider Details
12.4. Launching Agent and Free Agent
12.5.Pen-Picture of the Free Agent Screen
12.6. Online versus Offline News Reading
12.7. Subscribing to Newsgroups
12.8. Navigation in Free Agent
12.9. Changing Preferences
12.10. Keeping News Messages
12.11. Deleting News Messages
12.12. Responding to an Article with Free Agent
12.13. Sorting News Messages
12.14. Getting More Help
12.15. Some More Free Agent Keyboard Shortcuts

Section 13: Downloading Files and Programs from the Net
13.1. FTP File Downloads
13.2. HTTP File Downloads
13.3. File Download Steps
13.4. X:Drive Free Web Disk Space
13.5. FTP by E-Mail

Section 14: How to Find People and Places on the Internet
14.1. Search Engines
14.2. Contacting the Domain Postmaster
14.3. Searching through Usenet Newsgroups
14.4. Searching Online Directories

Section 15: Different Ways of Connecting to Accounts
15.1. PPP/SLIP Programs
15.2. E-Mail Programs
15.3. Newsgroup Readers
15.4. FTP Up- and Download Programs
15.4.1. General Overview
15.4.2. Step by Step Example of how to use FTP Explorer
15.4.2.1. General
15.4.2.2. Set-Up and Protocols
15.4.2.3. Uploading and Downloading Files
15.4.2.4. Configuration Tips
15.5. Chat Programs

Appendix 1: Where to Find More Internet Information
16.1. From the Internet Itself 
16.2.  In Braille 
16.3. On Cassette
16.4. By E-Mail

Appendix 2: List of E-Mail Lists Dealing with Particular Topics
of Visual Impairment
17.1. List of VI-Related Lists and Examples of How to Subscribe
to Them

Appendix 3: List of Hundreds of General Websites of Interest
18.1. Recommended Sites to Visit
18.2. Website Resources Accessible by E-Mail 

Appendix 4: Keyboard Shortcuts in Internet Explorer, Outlook
Express and Free Agent
19.1. Internet Explorer 5, 5.5 and 6
19.2. Outlook express 5, 5.5 and 6
19.3. Free Agent 1.92

Appendix 5: Glossary of Terms
20.1. Glossary

Appendix 6: Other Tutorials Available from this Author.
21.1. List of and Brief Description of Other Tutorials

Complimentary Close

                           ********

Foreword and Restrictions 

I have written this manual and tutorial for the use of blind and
otherwise visually impaired computer users and/or their trainers.
It is free of charge and only available from its author's Website
and from no other distributer.

No individual or organisation is permitted to sell copies of this
tutorial either as a stand-alone tutorial or as an integral part
of any other literary, software or training package. 

                           ********

                   AVAILABLE MANUAL FORMATS

The manual is only available in ASCII text format, as a free
download from the author's Website at:

http://web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard

This tutorial and guide has been created with a minimum of
formatting, in plain text, so that any word-processor or text
editor can read it. In this format it should also be suitable for
any one to run it through an embosser but, with some embossing
software, you may still wish to make some line spacing and
heading format changes to suit yourself and your software. A
simple construction such as this should also make reading by
arrowing up and down in your word-processor less labour intensive
than would be the case with columns, shorter lines, and the like.

Colloquialisms, such as don't, haven't, doesn't, etc, have been
avoided in this guide in order to make it easier to follow and
understand via a speech package. Hopefully, any loss of
conversationality and warmth will be compensated for by increased
clarity. 

                           ********

                         TARGET GROUP

Visually impaired computer users are the target group for this
manual. Keyboard access methods and descriptions, using
screenreaders and no mouse or monitor, are the basis of this
work. The manual is more likely to be useful to the Internet
starter who already knows something about Windows keystroke
methods and is already connected to the Internet, rather than the
complete novice. It should take the user from little or no
knowledge about the Internet to a position well into intermediate
stage usage, but it is not envisaged that it will be of much use
to the seasoned Net user who already comfortably uses up-to-date
Microsoft Internet Windows software, other than as a reference
resource. Nor does it attempt to teach
basic Windows operating system competencies.

                           ********

                          CONVENTIONS

In the writing of this manual, terms have the following meanings:

ALT F, A     Means hold down the left ALT key and whilst still
holding it down press the letter f, then release both and press
the letter A.

CONTROL S     Means hold down the control key and whilst keeping
it held down press the letter S and then release both.

SHIFT END     Means hold down the SHIFT key and whilst keeping
it held down press the END key.

ALT E, C, and press ENTER     Means hold down the left ALT key
and whilst keeping it held down press the letter E key, then
release both and then press the letter C key followed by the
enter key.

When a key combination such as ALT T (for Tools), O (for Options)
is suggested to go into the "Tools" menu and run the "Options"
menu option, the user may follow this method of operation or may
prefer to ARROW up and down a menu and press ENTER.  In this
latter case, the keystrokes would be: press the ALT key, right
ARROW to the "Tools" menu heading, then ARROW down (or up) until
the "Options" line is spoken, then press ENTER.

All individual and conbinations of keys you actually have to
press during a procedure which have been referred to have been
put in capital letters so that they stand out to anyone reading
this tutorial visually, e.g. to bring up the Open dialogue box
press CONTROL O.

                           ********

Suggested Approaches for Effective Reading of this Tutorial

It is, of course, entirely up to the individual as to how they
glean information and work through this tutorial, but a few
suggestions might assist the learner who is relatively new to
computers. I would propose that you read through the whole of a
section before attempting to practise it to obtain an overview
of what is being done. 

There are a number of approaches which might be taken to make
reading the tutorial as a text file and simultaneously carrying
out the instructions more fluid and easier to follow. Try one of
the below methods. 

Ideally, if you have two computers, you can load the tutorial
into your text editor or word-processor on one PC and have the
software program running on the other. You can then listen to the
directions on one computer whilst practising them on the other.

Alternatively, as is likely to be the case, if you only have the
one computer, you could launch your word-processor and load the
tutorial into it for reading. You could then launch the program
you wish to learn how to use in order to practise the lessons.
You would have to keep cycling between each running program by
pressing ALT TAB in this case.

Yet another approach might be to take a tape recorder or
dictaphone and get your screenreader to read the contents of a
given section or sub-section onto the tape. You could then play
the tape back and follow the instructions through on your PC
without having to keep moving from one running program to
another.

Other options would be for you to print out a copy of the
tutorial in large print if you can use this and work from this
hard copy, or you could get your local library or resource centre
to produce a Braille version for you to work from if you have one
in your area and you are a Braillist.

                           ********

                          >Section 1 

                         INTRODUCTION

1.1. What is the Internet and how do Visually Impaired People
Access it?

The Internet is a worldwide, interconnected network of computers.
It is also known as the "Information Superhighway" and "surfing
the Web" is the process of jumping from one Web page to another
anywhere in the world. The World Wide Web is not another name for
the Internet. The World Wide Web lives on the Internet and is a
system of interlinked information pages on the Net. 

I have written this manual chiefly in respect of Internet
Explorer 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 and other Microsoft programs running
on IBM-clone computers. Where other programs are described in
detail, it is because they are accessible and may do the job
better than their Microsoft equivalent from a screenreader and
keyboard point of view. Additionally, screenreaders are more
likely to have set files or script files written for well-known
programs than for more obscure ones, so they should be easier to
use.

Internet Explorer Version 4.0 was not very user-friendly to
visually impaired "Web Surfers" but the advent of Version 5 with
its accompanying utilities and the work of screenreader makers
has overcome most of these problems. 

Some Websites are more user-friendly to screenreader and keyboard
users than others. The problem is the extensive use of images and
graphics (pictures) on Web pages, some of which do not have text
titles attached to them.

It is essential that the visually impaired surfer gets to know
his/her own screenreader Internet commands and special shortcut
keys thoroughly to minimise time loss and frustration when on the
Net. Studying the screenreader's own manual to master any of its
special Internet commands prior to connecting will more than pay
dividends and could make the difference between using the
Internet being viewed as a tedious thing and feeling that it is,
in fact, a valuable and enjoyable tool for blind people.

This publication does not instruct the user in how to
use any particular screenreader (although some screenreader
special shortcuts are occasionally exemplified in the step by
step instructions) but instead concentrates on the general
keystrokes provided by MS Windows to get things done. In this way
the visually impaired computer user should be able to reasonably
function on the Net irrespective of the screenreader which is on
the computer they are currently using--something which would not
be possible if you only learned the special keystrokes which come
with a given screenreader package to achieve your goals. The most
common screenreader specific keyboard shortcuts, however, are
given in a sub-section below for JAWS, Window-Eyes and HAL to
refresh your memory.

One thing you must keep in mind is that the Internet is
continually in flux, growing and changing. Some Internet sites
and pages you accessed and viewed last week will no longer exist
this week, others will have come into existence within the last
few hours and yet others will still be there but will have been
altered in their construction and general appearance. Therefore,
whilst at the time of writing the keystrokes given herein were
the ones to use to acheive a given end result, This tutorial aims
not so much to get you to follow precise keystrokes on particular
sites only but rather to give you a general grasp of what the
changing Internet is like and the confidence to use it even if
some sites and web pages have changed since both I and you last
frequented them.

The reader may wish to work through this manual section by
section or jump to a particular section which interests them
first. Whichever way you approach this, I would recommend that
you quickly read through it to get an overview of its contents
and decide which approach is best for you in respect of how the
manual is written and layed out. Some readers will find, after
reading Sections 1 and 2, that they might like to jump to
Sections 7 and 8 about e-mailing to get a quick flavour of what
going on line is like and to do something positive on the Net
sooner rather than later. E-mailing, once your PC is set up for
this, is one of the most useful and easier things to do on the
Internet.

1.2. General and Specific Talking Screenreaders for Web Browsing 

Some general screenreaders which deal well with Windows and the
Internet plus a number of specific talking Web browsers are
mentioned below.

1.2.1. JAWS for Browsing the Internet

You can obtain a demo or purchase a copy of the general
screenreader JAWS for Windows from Freedom Scientific at:

www.freedomscientific.com

and they also sell a cheaper, cut-down version for specific use
on the Net. JAWS automatically renders Web pages into a word-
processor-style document type of layout to make navigating them
easier and more familiar. Tips on how to use this screenreader
will be regularly demonstrated in forthcoming sections and the
next section features a list of JAWS most useful hot keys for use
on the Net.

1.2.2. Window-Eyes for Browsing the Internet

You can buy or get a demo of the general Window-Eyes screenreader
by GW Micro at:

www.gwmicro.com

Window-Eyes automatically renders Web pages into a word-
processor-style document type of layout to make navigating them
easier and more familiar. Tips on how to use this screenreader
will be regularly demonstrated in forthcoming sections and the
next section features a list of Window-Eyes most useful hot keys
for use on the Net.

1.2.3. HAL for Browsing the Internet

Dolphin's HAL general screenreader can navigate Web pages and a
copy can be purchased from or a demo downloaded from:

www.dolphinuk.co.uk

HAl is able to navigate Web pages as they appear natively and you
can use HALs "Links List" to render links and frames on Web pages
into easier to find and sift through lists. Tips on how to use
this screenreader will be regularly demonstrated in forthcoming
sections and the next section features a list of HALs most useful
hot keys for use on the Net.

1.2.4. PWwebspeak for Browsing the Internet

There is also a Windows 95 Internet specialist World Wide Web
browser available called PWWebspeak by the Productivity Works in
America at:

www.prodworks.com

This specialist browser comes with its own speech engine which
will work through a synthesiser or via a standard 16-bit sound
card and basic computer speakers. However, it cannot deal with
JAVA-based sites. 

PWwebspeak was withdrawn from sale in 2002 but has now been made
avalable as a free download. It may be optainable from several
sites but one which has the 6.3 Mb program for download is:

www.soundlinks.com/pwgen.htm 

1.2.5. Wemedia for Browsing the Internet

Another specialist Web browser, which came out in the first
quarter of 2001, is from WeMedia and can be downloaded as
freeware directly from:

www.webtalkster.com/wemediatb.exe

This free browser is said to be operable with only six
keystrokes, after you have experience with it. It has its own
text-to-speech engine and interactive help system. In addition
to keyboard command operation, the browser can be operated with
spoken commands via a microphone. Users of this browser also have
easy access to a chat room which it provides and it will soon be
fitted with its own VI-friendly e-mail capability. This program
may be a little too verbose for experienced Web surfers but this
will probably be an advantage to learners. It works with all
current Microsoft operating systems from Windows 95 to Windows
2000 and ME.

1.2.6. Home Page Reader for Browsing the Internet

A further specialist Web browser, again with its own speech in-
built, which is the IBM Viavoice speech engine, is called Home
Page Reader. A demo copy for evaluation can be downloaded from:

www-3.ibm.com/able/hpr.html

>From Version 3.0 (but not with earlier versions) this browser is
able to deal with sites which adopt Java content.

1.2.7. Webbie for Browsing the Internet

More recently a freely downlodable Web page rendering program
called Webbie has become available, which you would use along
side a less advanced or older screenreader. It is available from:

www.webbie.org

or

www.screenreader.co.uk

The executable file which downloads will be called something like
"webbie263installer.exe" and you should find and press ENTER on
this to perform a Windows-type standard, straightforward program
installation. It will have downloaded to your Desktop by default
or anywhere else you have specified such downloads from the Net
to go.

After installing Webbie, you load it to use it before going onto
the Internet from:

Press Windows key, then P (for Programs) and then W several times
(for Webbie) and press ENTER once or twice on the "Webbie" option
to launch it.

Alternatively, place a shortcut on your Desktop from which to
quickly launch Webbie. 

Webbie is only around 3 Mb in size and works by presenting Web
pages just like word-processors present information. You can then
easily navigate such as forms and bring up links lists to work
on. for Webbie to work optimally, you will have to have Internet
Explorer 6 installed on your PC. Whilst users of more advanced,
up-to-date screenreaders such as JAWS 4.5, HAL 6 and Window-Eyes
4.21 would not require such an add-on Web page converter, users
of such as HAL 4X and earlier and Lookout screenreaders could
benefit greatly from such a specialist Web page browsing add-on. 

Webbie has four main areas on screen: a Menu Bar, a Toolbar, an
Address Bar and the main screen where the Web pages display,
which is the display area. You move from the display area to the
Address Bar by pressing ALT D and from the Address Bar back to
the display area by pressing ALT T. It also has a standard
Windows-type menu structure which you get into by pressing the
ALT key as usual. 

1.3. JAWS, HAL, Supernova and Window-Eyes Special Web Page
Navigation Hot Keys

Here I list, as a memory jogger, the main JAWS, HAL, Supernova
and Window-Eyes Web page hot keys when using Internet Explorer
5 and later as of March 2005.

1.3.1. JAWS 4.0, 4.5, 5 and 6 

Most of the below JAWS hot keys work with versions of JAWS from
4.0 onwards but a few will only work if you have upgraded to
later versions which have included extra hot keys. If you press
one of these single hot keys and nothing happens, it is likely
that this hot key does not exist in your copy of JAWS, otherwise
you would get some kind of feedback as JAWS would at least
report, for example, "no more divisions found" if you press Z and
your version of JAWS does not feature this particular recent
addition to its range of single hot keys.

Please note that the large INSERT key at the bottom left-hand
side of the number pad is also frequently referred to as the JAWS
key. I will only call it the INSERT key throughout this tutorial,
as this is its most common name when the number pad is turned
off. It is often used in conjunction with other number pad and
main keyboard keys to invoke special combined hot key actions and
so is used in a similar way to the SHIFT key when capitalising
letters.

Press A: To jump to the next anchor on a page.

Press B: To move to the next button on a page.

Press C: To get the current column read out in a table on a Web
page. From JAWS 6 this key's function changes and moves you
between comboboxes.

Press D: to skip to the next different element on a page, e.g.
from a link to an editfield and then, perhaps, to another link
or combobox.

Press E: to skip past the next element on a Web page. This
changes to skipping to the next editfield on a page from JAWS 6.

Press F: to skip to the next form (editfield) control on a Web
page.

Press G: To jump to the next graphic on a page.

Press H: to jump to the next heading on a Web page.

Press I: To skip to the next list item in a list on a Web page.

Press J: To jump to any line in the JAWS virtual buffer after
entering the line's number. You use SHIFT J to return to the
starting point before the jump.

Press K: To jump to the next place marker on a Web page if you
have previously inserted markers on that page.

Press L: to go directly to the next list on a Web page.

Press M: to move to the next frame on a Web page.

Press N: To skip past links on a Web page.

Press O: To go to the next object tag on a page.

Press P: To move to the next paragraph on a page.

Press Q: To move to the next block quote on a page.

Press R: To get the current row read out in a table on a Web
page. From JAWS 6 this key's function changes and moves you
between radio buttons.

Press S: to jump to the next same element on a Web page, e.g.
from edit field to editfield.

Press T: To jump to the next Table on a page.

Press U: To go to the next unvisited link on a Web page.

Press V: To go to the next already visited link on a Web page.

Press X: To go to the next checkbox on a page.

Press Z: To jump to the next division on a page.

Press >: To step past the next element on a Web page.

Press <: To step to the element before the prior element on a
page.

Note 1: Hold down the SHIFT key with any of the above single
letter hot keys to obtain the reverse action, i.e. jump backwards
through lists, tables, editfields, etc.

Note 2: From JAWS 6 you can hold down the CONTROL key and the
INSERT key together and then press any of the above single letter
keys to obtain a list of that particular element, e.g. CONTROL
INSERT Z will bring up a list of the divisions on the current Web
page.

Press ENTER: to turn MSAA mode off when on a form editing field
to be able to type text in. Pressing Numpad + (the PC cursor)
turns MSAA mode back on.

INSERT F1: Obtains screen sensitive help. 

INSERT F1 twice: Obtains JAWS help for a specific application.

INSERT A: Reads the contents of the Address Bar.

INSERT W: Provides tips on general Windows shortcut keystrokes.

CONTROL UP or DOWN ARROW: Moves you from one text paragraph to
another on a Web page.

INSERT F6: Places the headings on a Web page into a structured
hierarchical order to quickly ARROW through and press ENTER on
any one to jump there (but only if the page has been written
using HTML structured heading tags, e.g. H1, H2, etc). Before
JAWS 4.01 this command simply took you to the Desktop minimised.

CONTROL INSERT HOME: Takes you to the first form field on a page,
if JAWS has not automatically placed you there already. You will
have to press ENTER to turn MSAA mode off and forms mode on
before you can complete editfields on a Web page or in a form.

CONTROL INSERT TAB: Moves you to the next form field.

CONTROL INSERT SHIFT TAB: Moves you to the previous form field.

CONTROL INSERT END: Takes you to the last form field on a page. 

INSERT ENTER: Jumps you to the next instance of text with no
associated link to read that text.

INSERT F7: Invokes a links list so that you can ARROW up or down
the links on a page or jump straight to a link by pressing the
first letter of its name. You can also select between A-Z or Z-A
order, have them in the original page TAB order, have only
unvisited links displayed, only visited links displayed, etc.
Pressing ENTER on one of these links will activate it.

INSERT F9: Provides you with a frames list of the same type as
the above links list.

INSERT F5: From Version 5 onwards, displays a listbox with all
of the controls and forms on the current Web page similar to the
above two list features.

INSERT Z: Toggles the virtual PC cursor on and off.

CONTROL INSERT F: goes into the JAWS Find dialogue to type text
in to jump to this. 

CONTROL INSERT TAB: Moves you from the current form field to the
next form field.

CONTROL INSERT SHIFT TAB: Same as the above but backwards through
form fields.

Press INSERT DELETE: To route the virtual cursor to the location
of the PC cursor.

Press SPACEBAR: To toggle checkboxes, select radio buttons and
activate buttons without entering forms mode from Version 4.51
onwards.

Press ALT DELETE: To obtain information about how much of an
online document you have already read as a percentage of the
whole text.

ALT CONTROL NumPad 5: Reads the cell in a table which has focus. 

ALT CONTROL left or right ARROW: Moves you left or right through
table columns and cells on a Web page.

ALT CONTROL up or down ARROW: Moves you up or down a cell in a
table. 

ALT CONTROL HOME OR END: Moves you to the first or last cell in
a table respectively.

WINDOWS KEY down ARROW: Moves to the next row in a table.

WINDOWS KEY up ARROW: Moves to the previous row in a table.

WINDOWS KEY .: Reads the current collum in a table.

WINDOWS KEY ,: Reads the current row in a table.

CONTROL J: Is the jump to cell in a table hot key.

Pressing the main keyboard numbers 1 to 6: Jumps you from one
heading to another heading on a Web page, e.g. pressing 1
repeatedly keeps moving you through heading 1 level headings,
pressing 2 repeatedly keeps moving you through level 2 headings,
etc. In this way you can quickly move between headings at the
same level and between different levels of headings.

A new concept introduced from JAWS 5.0 is the place marker
insertion, jump to and list dialogue box. You can insert up to
10 place markers on any Web page and give them individual names.
You can cycle through these place markers by pressing the K key
and you can open up the place marker dialogue and view the list
of your markers, add new markers, name them, move them in the
list, remove them and jump to any one you like. You can do this
whilst on a Web page online on the Net or on a Web page held on
your hard disk without being online. There are only three
essential hot key commands involved, as listed below.

Press CONTROL SHIFT K: To open the place marker dialogue box when
on a Web page to insert a permanent marker or make a temporary
marker permanent.

Press K: to jump forward through markers.

Press SHIFT K: to jump backwards through markers.

In practice, what you do with place markers is:

1. Whilst on a Web page with your cursor at the desired place you
want a marker to be inserted, press CONTROL SHIFT K to open the
place markers dialogue box to permanently add, name, move,
remove, change the name of or jump to any place marker. 

2. Now TAB to "Add" and press ENTER.

3. Next type a meaning full name into the editfield you are in 
such as "phone number for Webmaster" and press ENTER, and you
have now finished inserting and naming your marker.

4. You can now jump to these markers with the above-mentioned K
and SHIFT K commands or you can again press CONTROL SHIFT K to
open the place markers' dialogue and then ARROW to any marker by
its meaningful name and press ENTER on it to jump to it. 

The place marker feature has a few other non-essential hot keys
which you may also wish to try, as follows:

Press CONTROL k: to insert a single temporary marker at the
cursor position on a page.

Press CONTROL SHIFT 1 through 0: To get the name of any of the
10 markers on a page spoken to you (this hot key failed to work
for me but perhaps it will work for you).

Press CONTROL SHIFT 1 to 0 quickly twice: To move straight to the
marker associated with that marker number, e.g. CONTROL SHIFT 5
twice to jump to marker number 5.

1.3.2. HAL 5, 6 and 6.5

Please note that, with HAL 6 onwards,  the CAPSLOCK key at the
left-hand side of the keyboard is also frequently referred to as
the Dolphin key. I will only call it the CAPSLOCK key throughout
this tutorial, as this is its most common name. It is often used
in conjunction with other keys to invoke special combined hot key
actions and so is used in a similar way to the SHIFT key when
capitalising letters.

Please also note that, when either the CONTROL or SHIFT keys are
mentioned in the below list of hot keys, it is the left key which
should be pressed. Pressing the right CONTROL or SHIFT key may
not work or may achieve a different result.

The following hot keys are available in HAL:

F1: Provides context-sensitive help for the control or other
element which focus is currently on.

F3: Activates HALs find feature to jump to a given word or words
on a Web page. You type the word(s) in and press ENTER to get the
first occurrence of the word found.

F4: This is the find next occurrence of a word hot key, after
firstly invoking the find with F3 as above.

F2: Is the find previous occurrence of a word key, after firstly
invoking the find with F3 as above. 

SPACEBAR: Activates (left clicks on) a link, rather than pressing
ENTER as with earlier versions of HAL.

ENTER (return or carriage return key): Puts you into forms mode
whilst on an editfield on a Web page. You can then type
information into an editfield. You may have to press ENTER each
time you encounter such an editfield to type text in. From HAL
Version 6.03 you enter forms mode by pressing CAPSLOCK ENTER and
HAL should then automatically change from forms editing mode to
reading mode and back again without you having to do anything
more.

NumPad +: Starts and stops continuous document read.

INSERT: Is the left click simulation key. To left click and
change to live focus press the A key and to left double click
press the U key. 

DELETE: Is the right click simulation key. To right click and
change to live focus press the D key and to right double click
press the E key. 

Left CONTROL PAGE UP or DOWN: Moves you upwards or downwards
through any elements of a page which are not links, e.g. buttons,
checkboxes, editfields, etc.

Left CONTROL SHIFT PAGE DOWN or PAGE UP: Moves you from frame to
frame on a page. 

Left CONTROL SHIFT HOME: Jumps you to the first form editfield
on a page.

Left CONTROL shift right ARROW: Moves you to the next occurrence
of text which is not associated with a link.

Left CONTROL SHIFT right ARROW: Opposite of above.

Left CONTROL SHIFT DOWN ARROW: Skips you downwards through links
on a page.

Left CONTROL SHIFT UP ARROW: Opposite of above. 

Left SHIFT Numpad 0: Gives you the URL of a link which is not
entitled or which has a meaningless title, such as "Click Here".

ALT T (for Tools) then ARROW down to "Dolphin Links Navigator"
and press ENTER: Loads the Links Navigator to format the links
on a page in a row to ARROW through in A-Z, Z-A or Tab order or
jump straight to a link by pressing the first letter of its name.
Pressing ENTER will activate the link. With the introduction of
HAL 5.20 and later versions, the Links Navigator is replaced by
what is known as the Dolphin List Utility, to do the same links
listing and selecting job but more efficiently and it also lists
frames and HTML headings. You can use it for complex Web pages
and for finding your way around HTML help files. With HAL 6, you
also have hot keys of CAPSLOCK 1 to list links on a Web page,
CAPSLOCK 2 to list headings, CAPSLOCK 3 to list frames and
capslock 4 to list what is in the System Tray. 

CAPSLOCK ENTER: From HAL 6.03 only, invokes HALs new forms mode
to make such as online shopping sites easier to work on. After
pressing CAPSLOCK ENTER, As you move through a Web page, HAL
intuitively automatically switches out of auto-virtual focus mode
into live mode every time it comes across an editfield or other
similar control to which live mode is appropriate. It will also
automatically return to auto-virtual focus mode when required to
do so in order to allow you to continue reading the Web page to
be able to do things such as activate links.   

CAPSLOCK Numpad 7: In HAL 6.03 onwards, speaks the name of a form
label to the left of an editfield if this is not automatically
spoken by HAL in its forms mode because it is out of HAL's normal
zone of detection.

CAPSLOCK Numpad 8: In HAL 6.03 only, speaks the name of a form
label above an editfield if this is not automatically spoken by
HAL in its forms mode because it is out of HAL's normal zone of
detection.

Note: With HAL 5X the general Windows commands of ALT left and
right ARROWS to take you to your last visited Web page backwards
or forwards respectively do not work. 

1.3.3. Window-Eyes 4.2, 4.5 and 5

Most of the below hot keys apply to all versions of Window-Eyes
from Version 4.0 on Web pages but the hot keys for using Window-
Eyes in MSAA mode to navigate Web pages immediately below apply
before version 4.5. for those which apply from Version 4.5, see
the new list beneath this first one.

CONTROL SHIFT F1: Brings up WE help but this is not context
sensitive.

CONTROL SHIFT F: Enables the WE find feature. Pressing INSERT F
will continue the search in the same direction.

ALT U: Reads the URL for the current page.

CONTROL INSERT S: Reads the status line, which may have useful
Web page download details.

CONTROL SHIFT A: Toggles MSAA mode on and off whilst MSAA mode
is in automatic loading mode.

INSERT A: Toggles automatic loading of MSAA mode on or off.

CONTROL SHIFT R: Will read a Web page from the cursor to its end.

CONTROL SHIFT S: Provides information about how many lines are
in the current page and what line the cursor is presently on,
plus advice about whether the page has frames.

ALT SHIFT DOWN ARROW: Moves you through links only on a page,
missing out any other elements or controls, such as editfields,
buttons, checkboxes, etc.

ALT SHIFT UP ARROW: Opposite of the above.

ALT DOWN ARROW: Moves you to the next element on a page, e.g. a
link, an editfield, a button, etc, but it takes you to another
type of control which is not the same as the one you left, e.g.
if you were in a textbox you would not go to another textbox but
to something else such as a button, a link, etc.

ALT UP ARROW: Opposite of above.

INSERT ALT DOWN ARROW: Moves you to the next text-only block
skipping all other controls.

ALT CONTROL SHIFT DOWN ARROW: Takes you to a previously visited
link on a page skipping all other elements and unvisited links.

ALT CONTROL DOWN ARROW: Moves you straight to the first control
on a page which is not a link or text line, typically a form
field such as a search box,  but you must do this from the top
of the page. Another press takes you to the next control on the
page. You will have to press ENTER to turn MSAA mode off before
you can complete editfields on a Web page or in a form. 

ALT CONTROL UP ARROW: Jumps you to the last control on a page
from the bottom of the page.

ALT CONTROL HOME: Takes you to your last position on a page or
to the place you were before you moved to a subsequent page if
moving back to the first page does not land you there
automatically.

INSERT TAB: Invokes the Window-Eyes vertical controls list from
where you can choose to view and ARROW through lists of frames,
tables or links in A-Z, Z-A or to view links in their original
Web page TAB order, etc. Pressing ENTER on a link will activate
it.

F6: Takes you to the attachments list in an e-mail.

ALT CONTROL TAB: Takes you to the first table on a page, when you
then use CONTROL + to enter table mode. CONTROL - leaves table
mode. Pressing ALT CONTROL TAB again will take you to the next
instance of a table on the Web page if there is one. 

ALT CONTROL SHIFT TAB: Moves you backwards through tables on a
page.

CONTROL SHIFT H: Lets you cycle through several ways WE will give
you table information, e.g. announce top headings as well as cell
co-ordinates and contents, side headings as well as cell co-
ordinates, etc.

INSERT right, left, up and down ARROWS: Move you one cell at a
time through a table on a Web page right, left, up and down
respectively.

CONTROL INSERT right or left ARROW: Moves you to the end or start
of a row in a table.

CONTROL INSERT up or down ARROW: Moves you to the top or bottom
of a column in a table.

With the advent of Window-Eyes 4.5 and later versions, the hot
keys for working with Web pages in MSAA mode have changed to
those shown below but, of course, many of the above hot keys of
general use on Web pages still work:

Press A: to skip to the next anchor on a Web page.

Press C: To jump to the next control on a Web page.

Press E: to jump to the next fieldset.

Press F: To skip to the next form on a page.

Press H: to move to the next heading on a page.

Press I: to jump to the next list item in a list on a Web page.

Press L: To jump to the next link on a Web page.

Press P: To jump to the next paragraph on a page.

Press Q: To move to the next block quote on a page.

Press S: to skip to the next list on a Web page.

Press T: To jump to the next table on a page. 

Press V: To jump to the next already visited link.

Press X: to jump to the next instance of a text field on a Web
page. 

Press left BRACKET F: To go to the beginning of the current form.

Press right BRACKET F: To go to the end of the current form.

Note 1: Hold down the SHIFT key with most of the above single
letter hot keys to obtain the reverse action, i.e. jump backwards
through lists, tables, editfields, etc. 

Note 2: Your screenreader may have fewer, more or even none of
the above single key shortcuts, depending on its version.
However, slightly earlier versions than those mentioned here
should have most of them and slightly later versions should have
them plus a few more. You should consult the hot keys section of
the online help which comes with your screenreader version.

Press INSERT V: To bring up the MSAA verbosity settings list,
where you can control how much information WE provides you with
on Web pages in respect of listboxes, forms, tables, lists and
other Web page elements.

Press CONTROL Numpad +: To enter table mode.

Press CONTROL Numpad -: to leave table mode.

1.3.4. Windows Operating System Shortcuts.

To view these, see Section 4 below, "What are Web Pages and How
are They Read".

1.4. More Advanced Surfing

This tutorial (Volume 1 of Accessing the Internet from the
Keyboard the Windows Way) takes the
Internet learner through the more commonly used programs and
features pertaining to the Internet. Once you have mastered
these, you may wish to venture into more advanced surfing waters
by freely downloading Volume 2 of this Internet tutorial from my
Webssite. Volume 2 contains sections including:

* The "Helpful Tips and Customisation" section.

* "Internet Shopping". 

* "Online Auctions". 

* "REALAUDIO RADIO, NEWS AND VIDEO". 

* "DOWNLOAD MANAGERS, ADVERTISEMENT BANNER REMOVERS
AND COOKIE CRUNCHERS". 

* "INTERNET BANKING". 

* "INTERNET CHAT ROOMS". 

* All seven of the appendices which you also get in Volume 1.

1.5. Free Virus-Checkers, Firewalls and Spyware Removers

These days, especially if you are on the Internet, you must
deploy at least a good virus-checker and a good spyware remover.
You will probably also want to regularly run a good firewall,
particularly if you are on an online all of the time broadband
connection to the Net.

1.5.1. AVG Free Edition Versions 6 and 7

It is advisable to obtain a virus-checker as soon as practicably
possible to ensure that you do not contract any viruses from the
Internet in general or as downloads with your e-mail. A virus is
simply a malicious piece of computer code written by someone to
do anything from be annoying on your PC or play a joke on you to
being outright destructive and rendering your computer unusable.
A virus-checker should detect such viruses before they can do any
damage and get rid of them for you. There are many commercially
available virus-checkers, such as Dr Solomon's, Mcafee, Fprot,
Norton Antivirus, etc, and prices can vary considerably. However,
there are also some free ones which are quite good and you can
obtain such a freeware virus-checker if you live in the US or UK
from:

www.grisoft.com

but you will have to navigate through several pages and many
links until you get to a "Download AVG Free Edition" button.

 Basically, the links you are looking for to press ENTER on in
order are: "Go to Free Download Page", "Download AVG Free
Edition", "Download AVG Free Edition" button, "Yes, I Agree" (at
the bottom of the licence agreement page, then complete the
registration form and press ENTER on the "Continue" button. The
last two steps are where you have to press ENTER on "Please click
Here to Start the Download Process" followed by pressing ENTER
on the "Start Download" button. You will be left on a "Cancel"
button whilst the download is taking place and if you decide to
stop the download, just press ENTER. 

Alternatively, for as long as nothing changes, you may find it
easier to download AVG from:

http://free.grisoft.com

This is Version six of AVG which can scan CD-ROM and floppy
disks, your hard disks, your incoming e-mail and will
automatically take you online and download and install updates
to your virus database every week or whenever you like. It is not
free for the rest of Europe! You will, of course, want to go
further into this manual and learn more about the Internet and
downloading and installing programs before you tackle this
particular download and installation but this software is very
usable with a screenreader. I only mention virus-checkers at this
early stage because the sooner you can get one working on your
system the better.

>From September 2003, AVG 7 became available but you will have to
pay for this. It is more advanced than the free version 6 and
probably worth the money for the extra features and esspecially
the extra automation and ease of use. You can obtain a 30-day
trial copy from the first-mentioned above Grisoft site. 

It is important that you also download updates to what is known
as the "data" or 
"signature" files for your virus-checker. These keep its ability
to detect new viruses up to date so that it does not become
obsolete. You can download these via the "Service" menu of AVG
and these are updated around every three days.

Note: from 31 December 2004 AVG 6 free edition is no longer
available or updatable with data files but by then AVG 7 free
edition will be downloadable from the above Websites. In fact,
AVG 7 free edition became available from November 2004.

1.5.2. Sygate, Zone Alarm and Windows XP Free Firewalls

In addition to a virus-checker, if you are to invest in a
broadband Internet connection instead of using a standard 56K
MODEM, you will need to deploy a good "firewall". You may even
wish to use a firewall with a 56K modem connection as well if you
use the Net frequently. A firewall is an additional piece of
software which is running all of the time you are connected to
the Internet--which will be all of the time you have your Pc
switched on with a broadband connection. Whereas a virus-checker
detects and repairs or disables software or intercepts e-mails
with viruses, a firewall monitors what is coming into your
computer from the Net whilst you are connected to it and will
alert you if any unauthorised person, such as a hacker, tries to
gain access to your computer, plus a number of other safeguards.
Some firewalls are more screenreader-friendly than others and one
which has been found to be usable and is free for download is
called Sygate Personal Firewall from:

www.sygate.com

or

www.whitestick.co.uk/download.html

Another free firewall which you may wish to try is called Zone
Alarm from:

www.zonealarms.com

Windows XP also has its own in-built firewall but this is limited
in how it works, because it only monitors what comes into your
PC from the Internet, not what may be able to get onto your hard
disk via such as a dodgy CD. In other words, it only does half
of a job, because if some undesirable small program is
transferred to your computer from a CD which can then send
messages from your PC whilst you are online to unauthorised
people, Windows XP will not stop this or warn you about it. I
would therefore recommend that you use one of the above two
firewalls instead of the Windows XP offering.

If you want a really top class and very screenreader-friendly
firewall and do not mind paying for it, try Look'N'Stop from:

www.looknstop.com/en/faq.htm

1.5.3. Ad-Aware Free Spyware Remover Version 6

Spyware is software which some Internet sites and disks you may
access puts onto your computer hard disk without your knowledge
so that it can then do such as track and record your movements
on the Net and possibly even record your every keystroke on your
PC and relay this information back to a Website or e-mail address
maintained by unscrupulous persons. This could lead to others
finding out your purchasing preferences and targeting you with
e-mail ads or, much worse, finding out the passwords and credit
card numbers which you use when paying for goods on the net.  

You can download the Ad-Aware spyware remover from:

www.lavasoftusa.com

Again, as previously advised, find out more about downloading and
using this type of software in the forthcoming sections before
you tackle this download and configuration.

Note that many people use at least two different spyware removal
programs side by side on their PCs because they are not all
capable of detecting all spyware files and what one misses the
other should deal with, e.g. a combination of use of Ad-Aware and
Spybot Search & Destroy is a common pair of programs to use.

If you have the appropriate sub-version of Ad-Aware 6 and JAWS,
you can download some Ad-Aware Jaws scripts from:

www.jfwlite.com

and, after installing them as usual into the jaws\settings\enu
folder, you can automate the running of Ad-Aware with the
following Jaws hot keys:

1. Start Ad-Aware.

2. Press CONTROL S to initialise the "Scan Now" button.

3. Now press CONTROL N to activate the "Next" button.

4. Wait for the scan to finish and, if you hear the system noise
which alerts you to the fact that you have some spyware on your
PC, press CONTROL M to mark all of the spyware detected.

5. Press CONTROL N for "Next" and you will be asked whether or
not you wish to delete the files. Press ENTER on the "OK" button
to finish and delete them.

>From the summer of 2005 another sub-version of Ad-Aware became
available, which is Ad-Aware 6.06. You can obtain this from the
above Lavasoft Website or you can download it and also obtain
some updated JAWS 4.51 to JAWS 6 script files for it from:

www.accessibleprograms.com

These scripts have their own help file with usage instructions
(press CONTROL H) to hear these and work basically the same as
with the above earlier version as far as the steps and hot keys
are concerned. The basic steps and hot keys are:

1. Start Ad-Aware.

2. Press CONTROL S to initialise the "Scan Now" button.

3. ARROW down to the scan mode you want, e.g. smart scan or
complete scan. 

4. Now press CONTROL N to activate the "Next" button.

5. Wait for the scan to finish and, if you hear the system noise
which alerts you to the fact that you have some spyware on your
PC, press CONTROL N to move to the next screen and then ARROW
right on to the "Critical Objects" tab.

6. Now press CONTROL M to mark all of the found objects in the
critical objects list for deletion. 

7. Lastly, press CONTROL N for "Next" and you will be asked
whether or not you wish to delete the files. Press ENTER on the
"OK" button to finish and delete them.

Alternatively, if you do not have the correct version of Ad-Aware
6 installed or are using a screenreader other than Jaws, you can
achieve all of the above using your screenreader's mouse
simulation hot keys to navigate and effect left and right clicks,
as follows:

1. Launch Ad-Aware.

2. Using JAWS/mouse/navigation mode all of the time, come up from
the bottom of the screen to the "Start" button and left click on
it.

3. Again, in mouse mode, now locate the "Next" button and left
click on it if you are not already on it, which you should be.

4. Wait for the scan to finish and, if you hear the system noise
which alerts you to the fact that you have some spyware on your
PC, locate another "Next" button, which you should already be on, 
and left click it.

5. You now, again using mouse mode, on the "Results" page you
will currently be on, ARROW to and locate the virtical list of
objects (such as unwanted registry entries and/or tracker cookie
files) found and right click on any of them to open up a Context
menu. In this menu you should ARROW down to the "Select All"
command and press ENTER.

6. Again you have to locate and left click on another "Next"
button followed by finding the "OK" button to left click on to
complete the whole procedure. 

Warning: Whilst Ad-Aware is a good spyware remover from the
perspective of its ability to find and destroy unwanted spyware,
it is not particularly friendly from a screenreader point of
view. Having said this, nor are most of the other spyware
removers. What you must remember is that, at step 5 above, when
your spyware files have been detected and are in the vertical
list ready for selecting and removal, you must take this first
opportunity to remove them. If you allow this list of spyware
files to close or do not delete them immediately but go back
later and try to do this, then it is unlikely that the vertical
list of unwanted files will become available again for selection,
so you will not be able to get rid of them. You will only be able
to remove them in future if you later contract other new spyware
files to add to the list of unwanted files, when it will then
display again for you to select all unwanted files and get rid
of both the new and old spyware together.

Tip: You can find instructions for manually removing many of the
more common spyware programs at:

www.pchell.com/support/spyware.shtml

and you can read reviews of several anti-spyware programs at:

www.firewallguide.com/spyware.htm

  1.5.4. Mail Washer Free Spam Remover

As will be apparent, spam filters remove or highlight spam e-
mails for you, so that you can automatically or individually
remove them. With the free version of Mail Washer you can also
view the contents of your mailbox on your ISP's server and delete
any suspicious messages so that they never get onto your computer
if you like. You can download Mail Washer from:

www.mailwasher.com 

1.5.5. Spybot Search&Destroy

Spybot Search&Destroy can find and remove tracker cookies,
trojans and other kinds of malicious spyware code. It is
downloadable from:

www.safer-networking.org

or

www.spybot.com


and is around a 5 Mb download.

                           ********

                           >SECTION 2

  HELPFUL TIPS AND CUSTOMISATION FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED USERS

You may wish to make some of these refinements to your programs
immediately or wait until later when you are more familiar with
the programs mentioned in this guide. Whichever way you approach
this, it is nonetheless a good idea to glance through this
section before you move on.

2.1. Eighteen Configuration, Customisation and other Helpful Tips

1. You may, if your phone line provider is BT and provided that
they do not start to deny people the option of doing this, wish
to opt for the BT Friends and Relatives service in order to
register your Internet Service Provider's phone number as your
best friend number to obtain a 20 per cent discount; otherwise,
register it for a 10 per cent discount. 

2. World Wide Web addresses have the suffix "http://" but you do
not need to type this in, as Web browsers fill this part of the
address in for you automatically. Thus, this suffix has not been
given when any website addresses have been indicated in this
manual unless it is needed.

3. To print a Web page, with the page on screen, press CONTROL
P. Pressing CONTROL S will save the page to disk.

4. A "link" on a Web page is a place where you can press the
ENTER key to jump from one part of the page to another to obtain
more information, or from one page to another on the same site
or from one computer site on the Web to another computer anywhere
else in the world. Web page links should be announced by your
screenreader saying something like "link" but if this does not
happen with your screenreader you should turn attributes (such
as colour change and/or style change) on so that these changes
will be announced to alert you to their whereabouts. Links are
normally underlined and in blue text. Some of these links may be
embedded in the middle of other text and form an integral part
of the textual information. You have to navigate to links with
the TAB key, the ARROW keys or your screenreader's special links
list facility and then press ENTER. For example, to invoke the
special links list feature, use INSERT F7 with JAWS, INSERT TAB
with Window-Eyes or ALT T (for Tools) and then ARROW down to
"Dolphin Links Navigator" and press ENTER with HAL 5.

5. You can copy links from a Web page to the Clipboard and then
paste them into the address field in Internet Explorer rather
than retyping them but be aware that this will not work if the
link has been split onto more than one line.

6. If a Web page comes down scrambled, you can press CONTROL R
to reload it or F5 to refresh the screen.

7. To obtain more screen space and not cause your screenreader
to be distracted, in many Windows programs it is worth turning
off the Toolbar by pressing ALT V, T, and unchecking any of the
Toolbars which are checked but this is not essential, e.g. in
Internet Explorer and Word. So, in Internet Explorer, you may
wish to uncheck (by pressing ENTER on them) the "Standard
Buttons" and "Radio" options but ensure that "Links" is checked
on. However, if you are likely to want to use a toolbar to effect
a command, do not do this, or turn Toolbars on and off as
required. Ensure that "Status Bar" is also checked on in the View
Menu. 

8. In Internet Explorer, to speed up page downloading (if you do
not use a monitor), press ALT T (for Tools) and then O (for
Options), CONTROL TAB to the "Advanced"
property sheet and in the "Accessibility" list ARROW
down this long list of options and uncheck (turn off by pressing
SPACEBAR when on them) "Play
Animations", "Play Videos", "Show Pictures" and "Smart Image
Dithering". Ensure that the
following are checked on: "Always Expand ALT Text for Images",
"Notify When Downloads Complete" and "Play Sounds". It might also
assist some screenreaders if you then CONTROL SHIFT TAB back to
the "General" sheet, TAB to "Accessibility" and press ENTER, then 
ensure that "Ignore Colours Specified on Web Pages", "Ignore Font
Sizes Specified on Web Pages" and "Ignore Font Sizes Specified
on Web Pages" are all checked on; but "Format Documents Using My
style Sheet" should be checked off. 

9. In order to facilitate faster initial page loading and avoid
the introductory advertisements which present themselves when you
first load Internet Explorer, you can have it load with a blank
page. To do this, with Internet Explorer running, press ALT T for
Tools, O for Options, and in the "general" property sheet TAB
forward to "Use Blank" and press ENTER. Then TAB on to OK and
press ENTER. In future, when you start Internet Explorer, it will
open with a blank page and your screenreader may announce the
word "About". You just continue as normal (see Section 4 for how
to launch Internet Explorer).

10. Some screenreaders may read what is on the screen better if
you surf in "full screen" mode. All you have to do to obtain full
screen mode is press the F11 key or press ALT V and arrow up to
"Full Screen"and press ENTER. Pressing F11 again returns you to
normal mode. Experiment to discover which view is best for you
but be aware that full screen mode makes a program completely
fill the screen, so title bars, menu bars, status lines, etc,
will disappear.

11. To speed up connection to your ISP and make site connections
and downloads quicker, go To "My Computer" on your Desktop and
press ENTER. Then ARROW down (or right) to "Dialup Networking"
and press ENTER. ARROW to and place the focus on your Internet
provider, e.g. Onetel, Freeserve, BT Internet, etc, and then open
up its context menu by pressing SHIFT F10. Now ARROW up to
"Properties", press ENTER followed by pressing CONTROL TAB to the
"Server Types" property sheet. Now TAB to "Advanced Options" and
in here ARROW DOWN AND ensure that all of the following are
unchecked: "Log Onto Network", "Enable Software Compression",
"Require Encrypted Password", "Require Data Encryption" and
"Record a Log File for this Connection". Then TAB
to OK" and press ENTER to finish. 

12. With Outlook Express 5.01 and later, upload and download time
(especially with a slow PC/MODEM/ISP server) can be saved by
turning off "Request a Read Receipt for all Sent Messages" and
ensuring that "Never Send a Read Receipt" is selected in Tools,
Options, Receipts (see Section 8, sub-heading "Obtaining a
received Message Verification Receipt").

13. If your MODEM is inexplicably disconnected from the Internet
frequently it could be that your MODEM is too sensitive to signal
lapses. To increase the time that your MODEM stays connected
during lapses you may find that the following helps: 

A. Press Windows Logo key and then S (for Settings), followed by
C (for Control Panel).

B. Press M until MODEMS has focus and then press ENTER.

C. TAB to "Properties" and press ENTER. 

D. CONTROL TAB to "Connections" and then TAB to "Advanced" and
press ENTER.

E. TAB to "Extra Settings" and type the following string in:

s10=50

This is all you type if there is nothing else in this editfield.
If some other information is already in there, you just leave a
space at the end of the other details and type the s10=50 at the
end of it. 

This will now mean that your signal can lapse for up to five
seconds without your MODEM cutting off.

F. To finish, now TAB to "OK", then to another "OK", followe by
TABBING to "Cancel" and press ENTER on each of those buttons.

G. Close the Control Panel by pressing ALT F4.

14. Whilst some screenreaders automatically make use of
Microsoft's Active Accessibility facility (MSAA), others can only
use it if it is specifically enabled. JFW and Window-Eyes
automatically use MSAA but some versions of HAL require that you
manually install MSAA. To enable MSAA for Windows 95 and 98, so
that ALT tags and other special screenreader friendly features
can be used with HAL: 

A. Press the Windows Logo key followed by F to open the Find
facility, then press ENTER and type in the editfield which you
will fall in "msaardk.exe".  

B. TAB to "Look In" and ensure that C: has focus--you may have
to ARROW up and down to achieve this--then press ENTER.

C. The msaa.exe file will be found, so just press CONTROL A to
highlight this file followed by pressing ENTRE.

D. You will then be told that MSAA will be installed, so press
ENTER on the "Yes" button. After about 30 seconds you will be
informed that installation is finished, so press ENTER on the
"OK" button. 

E. When asked to restart the PC, TAB to "NO" and press ENTER. u
return to the Find dialogue box, so press ALT F4 to close this
down.

F. You now have to enable MSAA in Hal's control panel by pressing
CONTROL SPACEBAR, followed by CONTROL TAB to the "General
Settings" property sheet. Then press ENTER.

G. Now Press TAB until you reach "MSAA Detection" and select it
by pressing the SPACEBAR. 

H. You finish by pressing ESC twice, when MSAA will be loaded and
usable by Hal. All you now have to do is reboot the computer
before going onto the Internet.

15. If, when using Outlook Express, you experience the system
intermittently trying to take you back on line when you do not
want this to happen, it may be that you are set up to check the
existence of new messages periodically. If you wish to stop this:

A. Press ALT T (for Tools), then O (for Options.

B. You drop into the "General" property sheet, so TAB down to
"Check for New Messages Every" and press SPACEBAR to unselect
this. Otherwise, if you still want periodically taking on line
to check for new messages but less frequently, just TAB once more
to the next line and alter the figure in their to a larger one,
e.g. type in 60 if you only want the system to check for new
messages every 60 minutes.

C. TAB to "OK" and press ENTER to finish. 

16. When running Outlook Express, the program may from time to
time, without you requesting this, attempt to take you online.
If this is an annoyance to you, you can stop it by:

A. With Outlook Express running, press ALT T (for Tools), then
O (for options.

B. CONTROL TAB to "Connections" and then TAB down to "Change" and
press ENTER. 

C. Next TAB six times to "Always Dial My Default Connection" and
ARROW down once to "Never Dial a Connection" and then TAB to "OK"
and press ENTER.

D. Now just TAB once more to another "OK" button and press ENTER
to finish.

17. If you can make use of a monitor with Internet Explorer
provided that the text on it is large enough, you can change the
"Medium" size text on screen, which is the default (standard) way
it is set up, by:

A. Press ALT V (for View).

B. Then press X (for Text).

C. ARROW to "Large" or "Largest" and press ENTER.

Conversely, if you do not use a monitor and this will not
adversely affect anyone else using the same PC, you could select
"Small " or "Smallest" to ensure that you get as much text onto
the screen as possible.

18. If you are using JAWS 5.0 or later and you are having
problems with Websites which employ Macromedia Flash, you can
tell JAWS to ignore this and therefore view pages without such
as unwanted frequent page refreshing, screenreader stammer, etc.
You have to do this in the JAWS Configuration Manager by:

A. Press INSERT F2 and then ENTER on "Configuration Manager".

B. Press ALT S (for Set Options".

C. ARROW down to "HTML Options" and press ENTER.

D. Now hold down the CONTROL key and press the TAB key until you
reach "Misc".

E. On the "Misc" property sheet TAB down to "Ignore Flash on Web
Pages" and press the SPACEBAR to check this off.

F. Now TAB to "OK" and press ENTRE.

G. Lastly, leave the Configuration Manager and save your new
settings by pressing CONTROL S and then ALT F4 if necessary. 

                           ********

                           >SECTION 3

   USING THE INTERNET VIA AN INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER (ISP)

3.1. Types of ISPs

You can connect to the Net by either signing up with an online
service such as Compuserve, who charge a fee for their service;
or by signing up with a provider for an Internet "Account", in
which case you usually receive a PPP account, many of
which are free, except for the cost of the phone calls. The rest
of this section concentrates on PPP accounts.

PPP stands for Point-to-Point Protocol and allows your PC to link
up and fully integrate with the internet. All
PPP accounts are in fact versions of IP (Internet Protocol) which
is the underlying part of TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol), which is the way that all computers
on the Net communicate with each other. 

Note: One of the main alternatives to a PPP account is a DOS
"shell" connection but this is fast becoming obsolete and is less
flexible than a PPP account, e.g. it cannot access online audio
and it is unable to filter Web page content. 

To use a PPP account you need two types of programs: 

1. a TCP/IP Stack (also known as an Internet dialler program) to
get you connected to the account, e.g. DialUp Networking in
Windows 95 and later Microsoft operating systems.

2. Client programs,such as e-mail programs and Newsgroup readers.

Some well-known PPP/SLIP programs for Windows 95 and later
operating systems which work with the standard Windows
winsock.dll driver are:

Netscape Navigator/Communicator and Internet Explorer--Web
browsers.

Realaudio and Shockwave--for sounds via the Net.

Eudora, Pegasus and Outlook Express--for e-mail. 

Free Agent and Outlook Express--to read newsgroups.

MIRC and Microsoft Chat--for Internet chatting.

N.B.: Winsocs are programs which interface between (act like
drivers) TCP/IP programs running in Windows and the Internet
itself.

3.2. What You Need to Get Connected with a standard or BroadBand
MODEM

What you require to get connected is:  

1. A fast MODEM, preferably 33.6 KBPS or faster, to connect your
PC to the Internet via the phone socket. For slower computers
such as 486-based machines, you will be better off using an
external MODEM or internal "hardware" MODEM; whereas faster
Pentium-based machines will not only work with both of the
foregoing types of MODEMs but also with the more economical
"software" internal MODEMs. It is also recommended that you
obtain a V90 or higher standard MODEM to avoid compatibility
problems with some ISPs. 

You can also rent a very much faster broadband permanent
connection to the Nett via a cable provider, such as Onetel, NTL
or Telewest in the UK. Other broadband options are provided via
ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber link), such as that provided
by BT, which uses the existing coper wire phone lines, but will
require a more expensive ADSL modem, although BT have recently
started to give these away if you sign up for their packages
online. More recent broadband connection methods are via wireless
and satellite, the former using microwaves received by an antenna
on your roof, whereas the latter uses TV channels to transmit
data like cable does but you still need a standard phone line to
communicate with the satellite via your ISP. These four broadband
options usually permit you a download speed of between 512 and
2048 KB per second, although some areas can achieve speeds of
upto around 8,000 Kb per second. If you wish to run more than one
computer via your phone line, you can employ a router instead of
an ADSL modem. In either case, you will also require a micro
filter for your phone wall sockets. 

In the UK, since the second half of 2003, you can, in some areas,
even rent a fifth type of broadband connection. This is known as
"BroadBand over the mains" and is a Symmetric DSL connection
(SDSL), having both upload and download speeds currently at 1
megabit per second. Speeds of two or three times this are planned
for next year. You need a special MODEM to run this, which simply
plugs into your standard 3-pin mains socket. 

To clarify, broadband is defined by the official UK regulator
(OFCOM) as an Internet connection which is always on and is at
a minimum speed of 128 kilobits per second.

2. A cable from your computer into a standard phone socket on the
wall. This usually comes with your MODEM. 

Warning 1: It is not advisable to use standard quality reel-type
multi-strand phone extension wire to extend a MODEM cable to a
far-off phone socket. It may work OK but is likely to cause your
line to the Internet to be dropped more than would otherwise be
the case. The wiring inside this type of extension, whilst fine
for robust telephone communications, is not of good enough
quality to transfer the delicate signals of many MODEMS. You
should extend any cabling with single strand, copper cabling,
which can be purchased from BT shops. 

Warning 2: What is known as the "gain" on a phone line is
basically the speed at which or sensitivity with which a phone
line carries messages. The standard gain on a BT phone line is
set to zero. This is fine for robust telephone voice
communications but often not good enough for sensitive MODEM
signal transfer, particularly if the line to your nearest phone
exchange is at a considerable distance. If you are experiencing
frequent failed connections to your ISP or regular line cut-offs,
you may be able to remedy or at least mitigate this problem by
ringing BT and asking them to increase the gain on the line. I
am advised by BT that the highest level that they can increase
the gain to is 4, as a gain above level 4 is likely to cause echo
on the line and thus result in the line getting worse rather than
better.

3. A computer fast enough to run Windows 95 or a higher operating
system. Fast computers will also permit you to multitask, e.g.
listen to realaudio music at the same time as waiting for a large
file to download from the Net.

4. A micro filter or splitter for each wall phone socket you
intend to use for connecting to the Internet. These micro filters
will allow you to use such a wall socket both for your Internet
connection and also as a voice phone line connection
simultaneously. 

3.3. Getting your Windows PC set up for a PPP connection

You should:

1. Arrange for a PPP account from a provider who only charges for
calls at the local phone call rate.

2. Obtain a software disk from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
which contains the TCP/IP software and possibly a full browser
such as Internet Explorer, e.g from NTL, Onetel, Dixon's/Pc
World's Freeserve (comes with Internet Explorer), Waterstone's
(comes with Internet Explorer), etc. All of these incur local
phone call charges. One package which has no charges, not even
for your online time, is Screaming Net run by the Tempo
electrical and electronics retailers, but you have to sign up to
have all of your regular phone calls routed via them at their
call rates. One of their London branches is on 020 79375166.
Their website is at:

 www.screaming.net

but note that this company now seems to have been taken over by
another, so their services and terms may have changed.

3. During the installation of the software, type in any passwords
and other provider details that are requested. (This can be
confusing and difficult for the beginner, so you may need to
phone the newuser help line or, even better, recruit a friend
with knowledge of such things.)

You can get TCP/IP software by either buying it from a vendor,
or phoning an ISP such as Freeserve and asking for a free disk
or by persuading a friend already on the Internet to download a
program from the Net.

Note: Things move so fast in this industry that, since I wrote
the first version of this manual in April 2000, Cable and
Wireless has been bought out by NTL. To discuss NTLs offerings
in respect of the Internet, which currently include free internet
phone calls provided that you spend at least 10 a month on
standard voice phone calls with them, ring their Customer
Services on 0800 0929001.

3.4. Connecting to Your ISP

Windows 95/98, Me and XP comes with all the software you require
to connect to a PPP account using "Dial-Up Networking".  When you
finish you can place a shortcut to Dial-Up Networking on your
Start Menu or Desktop, or you can create a shortcut key
conbination to launch it. This can be useful to use if you want
to come offline from the Net at times when your client software
has failed to take you off. Otherwise, if you have an always
online broadband connection, you will already be online and will
not need to use a dial-up facility.

To call your account (using a dial-up connection rather than a
broadband connection) you run the Dial-Up Network program an
press ENTER on the "Connect" button. Do this by:

1. pressing ENTER on your Desktop shortcut (if you have one) or
by navigating to Dial-Up Networking by pressing your Windows LOGO
key (either side of the ALT keys), then pressing P for Program
Files, then pressing A until you get to accessories (press
ENTER), then C for Communications (press ENTER), followed by
one or two presses of D to get to "Dial-Up Networking" and press
ENTER.

2. Dial-Up Networking will run and you will be on the button to
"Make New Connection", so ARROW down or right to the name of your
current Internet service provider and press ENTER.

3. You will be presented with a list of editfields to complete,
which should already be completed, so TAB to "Connect" and press
ENTER. If you do not want to have to remember or input your
password every time you go online, check (press SPACEBAR on) the
"Save Password" option.

4. You will go online to your server within a few seconds (if it
is not too busy). 

5. You can then run Internet browsing client programs such as
Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, PWWebspeak, Home Page
Reader or what ever you choose to browse the Web with. Of
course, if you elect to run these Net surfing programs first,
they will automatically connect you to your ISP by grabbing
Dial-Up Networking for you and connecting you. This, to some
extent, makes the above explanation unnecessary, except for that
it is worth knowing what is actually taking place when you go on
line and you may also have to go into Dial-Up Networking from
time to time to make configuration changes.

Note: It is possible to have more than one e-mail account. If you
set up more than one account, you can switch between accounts as
and when you like. Similarly, you can have several internet
service providers and use whichever you like at any time. You can
simultaneously download e-mail from several e-mail account
inboxes. 

3.5. Making Changes to or creating a new Internet Connection

If you need to change some of your Dialup Networking details,
such as your password, username (log-in name), the phone number
used to ring your current ISP, etc, or if you want to set up a
completely new ISP connection, you should: 

1. Go into Dial-Up Networking as described in 1 above.

2. You will land in a list of your current ISPs, on the "Make New
Connection" option. You would press ENTER on this if you wanted
to subscribe to a new ISP (see the next sub-section for a solid,
real-live, step-by-step new ISP sign up) . On the other hand, if
you wanted to make minor changes to your current ISP details, you
would ARROW up or down or right or left until the name of it has
focus, e.g. BT Internet, Onetel, etc, and then press ENTER. 

3. You will now have several titles with editfields which you can
complete or change the details in after BACKSPACING out what
might already be in their first, e.g. Your ISPs phone number,
Username (this is your log-in name), your password (which will
be replaced with asterisks so no one can see it), etc.

4. If you press ENTER on "Dial Properties" you can view (and
change, if necessary) such things as the number Dialup Networking
rings to access your ISP, your own town's area code, the country
you are living in, select between "Tone Dialling" and "Pulse
Dialling", whichever your home phone uses, then TAB to "OK" and
press ENTER. 

5. You will return to the first dialogue you were in, so either
TAB to "Connect" and press ENTER to go on line with your new ISP
or your old one but with the changed details, e.g. a new phone
number for them if they have changed it, or just press ALT F4 to
leave the Dialup Networking program altogether.
If at 4 above you had been trying to set up a new ISP connection,
rather than just adjusting the settings or phone number, etc, for
your current ISP, you would have had to type in a name for your
new ISP, go to the "Next" button, complete each set of
information editfields as they come up until all the information
is provided. There is also a "Configure" button if you need to
enter this multi-page set of property sheets to make adjustments
to your MODEM's internal speed, bit rate, etc, but this should
not normally be necessary.

3.6. Solid Step-by-Step Example of Subscribing to a Pay-As-You-Go
ISP Service and Creating a Desktop Shortcut to it--The UK2 ISP
Service

If you are a UK resident and f you currently have all the
components you need to get online via an ISP but are not yet
connected and only want a basic connection or you want to set up
a second ISP connection as an alternative to your current one,
try the following UK2 ISP service. Set it up simply as follows:

1. Go to Dial-Up Networking by pressing Windows key, then P (for
Programs), then press ENTER on "Accessories", followed by C (for
Communications) and ENTER and, lastly, press D (for Dial-Up
Networking).

2. You will fall on the "Make New Connection" button, so press
SPACEBAR and then ENTER on this to open up the new connection
dialogue. 

3. In the editfield you come into, type over what is in their
with the name of the new ISP you wish to set up or any other name
you want to have this known by, e.g. since this is to be set up
with the UK2 provider, why not just type in here "UK2".

4. Then TAB to "Next" and press ENTER.

5. You now come into the "Area Code" editfield and, since the
whole phone number for the UK2 connection is 0845 6091370, you
just type the area code of 0845 in here.

6. Next TAB once to the "Telephone Number" field and type the
remaining main phone number of 6091370 in here.

7. TAB once again to the Country or Region Code" editfield and,
if it is not already on United Kingdom , press the first letter
of the country you want until it is highlighted, e.g. press U to
eventually get to United Kingdom.

8. Then again TAB to "Next" and press ENTER.

9. You should now be told that you have successfully created a
new dial up connection called UK2 (or whatever you called it) and
you should now TAB to the "Finish" button and press ENTER to
complete the procedure.

10. You can, of course, access this new ISP service the long way
round via Program Files, Accessories, etc, as mentioned above and
get onto the Internet in this way or you can create a Desktop
shortcut to it for quick and easy connection and disconnection
to the UK2 ISP. To create a Desktop shortcut what you would do
is:

A. If you have left the Dial-Up Networking dialogue box, Go back
to it by pressing Windows key, then P (for Programs), then
pressing ENTER on "Accessories", followed by C (for
Communications) and, lastly, press D (for Dial-Up Networking).
However, if you did not leave the Dial-Up Networking dialogue
after step 10 above, you will be able to simply continue as
below.
  
B. Move from the "Make New Connection" button you will now be on
to the name of the provider you gave above, such as UK2, by
ARROWING up, down, left or right to it.

C. Now open up a Context Menu by pressing SHIFT F10 and ARROW up
to the "Create Shortcut" option and press ENTER.

D. You will receive a message saying that you cannot create a
shortcut here but offering you to create one on the Desktop
instead, so just press Y (for yes) to achieve this.

E. Now press ALT F4 to close the Dial-Up Networking dialogue box.

F. Now press Windows key M or D to get to the Desktop and then
press S until the "shortcut to UK2 shortcut icon is reached. To
change this shortcut name to something a little more sensible,
just press the F2 key to open up the renaming editfield and then
type the name you want the shortcut to be known as in here and
press ENTER, e.g. "UK2 Dial-Up".

11. To go on line either:

A. In future, to go online to the Internet via this new UK2
Internet service provider, all you have to do is go to this UK2
Dial-Up shortcut on your Desktop and press ENTER on it, when the
UK2 0845 6091370 phone number will be dialled and you will be
taken online to surf the Net. However, before you get onto the
Internet, you will be in the connection dialogue box and will be
asked for a username and a password, which are both completed
with the word "UK2" before pressing ENTER to go online. Once
online, just open your Web browser, such as Internet Explorer,
as usual (see the next section for how to do this).


or

B. Alternatively, you can go onto the Net by launching Internet
Explorer first then type into the Address Bar the URL (Web
address) you want to go to and then press ENTER. You will be
taken to the dial-up dialogue box to select which ISP you want
to use to go online with, e.g. if your main ISP is Onetel, this
will be selected as the ISP to be used by default (as standard)
but if you want to use your newly created UK2 ISP connection,
just ARROW down the list of ISPs to "UK2" and then TAB on to
"Connect" and press ENTER.

12. To come offline and therefore disconnect from your Internet
service all you have to do is launch the dial-up ISP connection
again, whether it be UK2 or any other ISP, e.g. via your Desktop
shortcut, and then TAB once to the "Disconnect" button and press
ENTER. Note that with some ISPs going to the shortcut to Dial-UP
Networking on your Desktop is not necessary, as the ISP itself,
after you close down your browser, will offer you the options of
staying on line or closing your phone line connection. The latter
usually happens with the UK2 ISP.

Note 1: At the time I added the above sub-section (December
2004), the cost of using the UK2 ISP service was 4p per minute
during the day and 1p after 6 p.m. and at weekends, with a
minimum of 5p charged for the first 1 to 5 minutes of surfing,
which is the same as or very similar to usual 0845 numbers. If
you are wondering how you pay for this type of service, what
happens is that the cost of online surfing time is added to your
BT bill.  The UK2 ISP company receives a cut of your online
spending for providing the ISP service and BT also receives a cut
of expenditure for providing the phone line and the means of
billing.

Note 2: As an alternative to getting to the Dial-Up Networking
utility via your Desktop shortcut or the Windows key and Program
Files path, you can also access it by pressing Windows key and
E to open Windows Explorer and then press TAB once to a list view
before ARROWING down a list of drives/icons/shortcuts to your
several drives and a number of useful utilities including Dial-UP
Networking, printers, Control Panel, etc. Just press ENTER on any
of them to access it.

3.7. List of UK Dial-Up Services (non-broadband)

The below Providers supply varying services such as a free ISP
with 1p a minute pay-as-you-go for online telephone time. Others
will charge the standard local charge for phone calls, the amount
you pay depending on whether you go online at peak or off-peak
times. Yet other suppliers will provide a package at a monthly
charge with either free call charges all of the time or perhaps
just after certain times of day and at weekends. Some provide
Website space of varying amounts and others may also give you e-
mail addresses to use. Technical support call charges can vary
greatly from being free (e.g. Global.Net) to up to 1 per minute
(e.g. Virgin.net). Others charge for support at local or national
rates.  

Beeb.net: Tel 0808 1004950.

Global.Net: Tel 0870 9098000.

BT Internet: Tel 0800 800001.

Clarinet: Tel 0845 355100.

Freeserve: Tel 0990 500049.

MSN Network: Tel 0870 6011000.

Onetel: Tel 0800 9570700.

Telewest: Tel 0800 9535383.

UK Online: Tel 0800 0534500.

Virgin.net: Tel 0500 558800.

3.8. List of UK Broadband Providers

The below are all either broadband or cable providers. Their
download speeds vary from 128 to 2048 Kbit/s (kilobits-per-
second) and some work even faster. The most common download speed
is 2048 Kbit/s. UPload speeds may vary from 128 to 3072 Kbit/s
(an eighth of a Gb to 3 Gb) but this will improve year on year.
Connection fees can range from nothing to over 200. Some of them
provide no Website space for you to create your own Website in,
whilst others include up to 500 Mb of Web space. Some provide no
e-mail addresses and others provide several addresses.  

BT Openworld: Tel 0800 800001.

Clarinet: Tel 0845 3551000.

Freeserve: Tel 0870 0102462.

Nildram: Tel 0800 0260950.

NTL: Tel 0800 831234.

Onetel: Tel 0845 2720052.

Pipex: Tel 0870 6004454.

Plusnet: Tel 0845 1400200.

Telewest: Tel 0800 9530454.

Tiscali: Tel 0800 5421717.

Zen Internet: Tel 0870 6000971.

Lixxus: Website www.lixxus.co.uk. This provider has both monthly
payment and pay-as-you go broadband offerings.

Note: If you want to make a preliminary check as to whether your
phone line/exchange are able to provide you with a broadband ADSL
connection, you can do this by phoning the BT check line service.
Just ring 17070 and then choose options 3, then 1 and lastly 2
and replace the receiver. In a few seconds you will be phoned
back to tell you if your line is or is not suitable.

3.9. Broadband Over the Mains Provider

Since the second half of 2003, you have been able, in some areas,
to obtain a broadband over the mains Internet connection which
works by plugging a special MODEM into your 3-pin mains electric
supply. This currently runs both uploads and downloads at 1
megabit per second (mbit/s) and is expected to increase to 2 or
3 mbit/s next year. For more information surf to:

www.southern-electric.co.uk

or

www.hydro.co.uk

3.10. Changing Your Broadband Provider

Should you be discontent with your current broadband provider,
you can change them to another provider. However, you would be
advised to check certain facts before doing this if these are
important to you, e.g. that the new broadband ISP is able to
support your current e-mail address and that they can take over
any Website you may have. For example, The procedure to change
an ADSL broadband ISP in the UK is to contact the ISP you wish
to move to and they will then contact the BT Wholesale section
to request that your current broadband service be migrated to
them from your old ISP. BT Wholesale will then inform your old
ISP that you wish to migrate and will allow 10 working days for
it to agree to the transfer. On agreement, your account will be
transferred and your new ISP will be charged 35 by BT, which
your new ISP may absorb itself or pass onto you. If the old ISP
refuses to let you migrate your current account, you should phone
them to try to persuade them to do so and if they still refuse,
you can always simply close the old account without migration and
then start again by opening a new account with your new ISP (but
your e-mail address, Website details,etc, will, of course, become
invalid in this case). 

                           ********

                           >SECTION 4

          INTERNET EXPLORER VERSIONS 5.0, 5.5 AND 6.0

Whether you use Internet Explorer 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0, there are few
differences in their contents or how they work. Of note is that
versions of IE later than Version 5.0 feature a "Receipts"
property sheet which can be found within Tools, Options.
Similarly, IE6 provides a feature not in earlier versions, called
"Privacy Report",  which is on the View menu and has an
associated "Privacy" property sheet in Tools, Options. Both of
these additions will be covered in this section as well as the
other main features pertinent to all three versions of Internet
Explorer. However, note that IE6 requires at least Windows 98 to
run. 

4.1. Internet Protocols, Server Names and File Paths

When you go onto the Internet with a browser such as Internet
Explorer, Netscape Communicator, etc, you will be using certain
protocols and server names, and you can also designate a
directory or folder or particular document path if you know this.
There are therefore three elements to such a URL. Firstly, the
protocol is the HTTP:, FTP:, USENET, GOFER, etc, element of an
Internet address (URL). Secondly, there is the server name, which
may comprise the server computer name or the domain name and
possibly some other identification details. Thirdly, the path
contains directory/folder names and eventually a filename
(document or program). For example:

http://www.microsoft.com/enable/wordtips.htm

where the protocol is the "HTTP:" part, the server name is
"www.microsoft.com" and the path is the "enable/wordtips.htm"
part. For more information on protocols and download procedures,
see "FTP File Downloads" in Section 13.

When you are on a particular Web page in Internet Explorer,
having activated one or more links since being on the home page,
you can observe (and make a note of if you wish) the path to that
particular page by moving to the line underneath the Menu bar and
observing the "Address Bar". You will probably have to do this
in your screenreader's mouse or navigation mode. For instance:

www.hj.com/tutorials/wordtutor.html

but you have to ensure that the "Address Bar" is turned on in the
"View" menu by pressing ALT V, T and then ARROWING to "Address
Bar" and pressing ENTER to check it on if it is not already
checked. In future, if you wish to go straight to that particular
wordtutor.html file or page, you could just type the path to it
straight into the Address Bar when you start Internet Explorer
(see the steps to follow below for more details).

Note: The different levels of directory leading to the program
or document you wish to reach are separated by forward slashes,
not back slashes.

4.2. Launching Internet Explorer 

There are several ways you can start Internet Explorer running.
See which of the below methods you prefer.


4.2.1. Launching Internet Explorer from its Executable File on
Your Hard Disk

You can start Internet Explorer from its place of residence on
your hard dis by:


1. Press Windows key and release it.

2. Then press P (for Programs).

3. Either ARROW down the list of programs in here to "Internet
Explorer and then press ENTER or press I (for Internet Explorer)
to open it without having to ARROW to it.

4. Internet Explorer will loadin and start for you to either go
onto the Internet with to view Web pages or to view any Web pages
you may already have on your computer's hard disk.  

5. If you want to go straight onto the World Wide Web, you can
do so by typing a site's address in by either:

A. Pressing ALT D to go to the address bar (if you have this
showing), or

B. Pressing CONTROL O to activate the Open dialogue, 

Then type the site URL in, e.g.:

www.tesco.com

or

web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard

and press ENTER, when the required site's home page will then
load for you to browse through.

Or, alternatively and more conveniently,  you can create a
shortcut on your Desktop or Start Menu from which to launch
Internet Explorer, as directed below.

4.2.2. Creating a Shortcut and Launching Internet Explorer from
It

I Would recommend that you put a shortcut on your Desktop or
Start Menu (if one is not already there) from which to quickly
launch Internet Explorer. You can then run it by simply pressing
Windows Logo key D, press I until "Internet Explorer" is
highlighted and then ENTER on the shortcut label. This will not
only be helpful to you but to any sighted members of your family.
Alternatively, you could create a unique shortcut key
combination, such as ALT CONTROL I to launch Internet Explorer
with but this would, of course, not be very helpful to others who
do not know your shortcut. 

Internet Explorer will then launch and you can go onto the Web
by typing a site's address in by either:

A. Pressing ALT D to go to the address bar (if you have this
showing), or

B. Pressing CONTROL O to activate the Open dialogue, 

Then type the site URL in, e.g.:

www.tesco.com

or

web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard

and press ENTER, when the required site's home page will then
load for you to browse through.

To create a Desktop shortcut for Internet Explorer, or any other
program or folder for that matter, you would:

1. With Windows 98 and some versions of Windows 95:

A. place focus on Internet Explorer by pressing Windows Logo key,
then P (for Program Files) and then ARROW down to Internet
Explorer.

B. Now press SHIFT F10 to bring up a Context Menu and ARROW to
"Send To" and press ENTER.

C. Lastly, ARROW down to "Desktop" and press ENTER.

2. If the above is not possible with your operating system, the
longer way to achieve this is:
 
A. Press Windows LOGO key followed by the letter S, then press
T. 

B. Then press CONTROL TAB to the "Start Menu Programs
Property Sheet".

C. You will and on the "Add" button, so press ENTER. Then tab
to the "Browse" button and press ENTER. 

D. You will be asked for the executable filename, so type in
"iexplore.exe" and then TAB to the list of folders on your c:
drive under the "Look In" line. Press right ARROW on C for your
c:\ hard disk drive and then Press TAB to a list of the folders
on the C drive. Then press P until "Program Files"
is spoken and then press ENTER.

E. Now press I until "Internet Explorer" is spoken and press
ENTER.

F. Press I until "Iexplore.exe" is highlighted and then press
ENTER.

G. Press the TAB key to the "Open" option and then press
ENTER.

H. Then TAB to the "Next" button and press ENTER. You are
asked where you want to place the shortcut, so ARROW up to
"Desktop" and then press TAB to "Next" and press ENTER. Note that
you pass "Start Menu" on your way to "Desktop", so you could stop
there if you wanted to put this shortcut on your Start Menu
instead of your Desktop (but remember that your Start Menu can
become full so that no more can fit onto it).

I. You are asked to select a name for the shortcut and given
"Iexplore.exe" as an option. If you want to change this, just
type over it, e.g. with "Internet Explorer", and then press TAB
to the "Finish" button and press ENTER. 

J. Now press TAB to the "OK" button and press ENTER to
complete the procedure.

K. You can now, in the normal way, go to this shortcut on
your Desktop by pressing Windows Logo key M followed by I until
"Internet Explorer"  is spoken and then press ENTER to load it.

Note: You can also create shortcuts in the above way for any
other file, folder or disk drive on your computer and to Web
pages.

4.2.3. Other Methods of Launching Internet Explorer

If you do not wish to place a shortcut on your Desktop or Start
Menu, Internet Explorer, by default (as standard), is
contained within the Program Files folder. You can therefore also
run it by navigating to it with My computer or Windows Explorer
or by using the "Run" option on your Start Menu. To do this via
the "Run" facility you would hold down the Windows key and
press the letter R, then type the full path to the executable
file in the editfield which comes up. This would be:  

c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe

or

"c:\program files\internet explorer\iexplore.exe"
(ensure that you include the double quotes in the above line)

and press ENTER. 

You should come up onto the start screen for Internet Explorer,
but if you are taken to the "Connect" button immediately, press
ENTER to go online or just press the ESCAPE key to go to the
start screen without going online.

Alternatively (and even more conveniently and easily), you can
use the above same Run dialogue to type in the appropriate Web
page address, Website filename or Website audio file to either
open a given Web page, download a specific file or start the
playing of a particular audio file by streaming (playing it
directly) from the Net. For example, if you wanted to open the
Talking computers audio magazine for visually impaired people
main home Web page and hear the Talking Computer's Editor's
introductory audio file welcoming you to their site, you could
do the following:

1. Press Windows Key R.

2. Type into the editfield which you are now presented with the
address of this site, which is:

http://tc.pressakey.net


and press ENTER.

3. Internet Explorer (or whichever other Web browser is your
default (usual) browser will launch and (if you are not already
online) you will be taken online, the Talking Computers home Web
page will display and its introductory audio announcement will
be heard.

Note: You can do this even if, at the same time, you have another
program running such as MS Word, Excel, etc, and if you then wish
to return to that first running program, you can simply close
your Web browser or press ALT TAB to cycle to it without closing
the browser.

4.2.4. Starting Internet Explorer with a Blank Page or Starting
it with a Specific Home Page Automatically Loading

If you like, you can make Internet Explorer launch with a blank
page rather than waiting for a specified page on the Net to load
in every time you go online. Conversely, you can take the
opposite approach and have a given page you like to go to and
have regularly loaded in when you go online. Do this as follows:

To start with a blank page and therefore not have to wait for an
unwanted page to load before you can continue:

1. With Outlook Express running, press
ALT T (for Tools) and then O (for Options).

2. You will be in the "General" property sheet, so TAB to "Use
Blank" and press ENTER.

3. Now SHIFT TAB back to "OK" and press ENTRE to finish.

To specify a given home page to open each time you go online:

1. With Outlook Express running, press
ALT T (for Tools) and then O (for Options).

2. You will be in the "General" property sheet and should be on
the "Home Page Address" editfield, so just type in here the
Website home page address (URL) you want to have opened every
time you go online, e.g.:

web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard

for my own Website home page.

3. Now SHIFT TAB back to "OK" and press ENTRE to finish.

4.3. Internet Explorer Temp File Cache Size

Once you have opened a Web Page it is automatically saved to a
temporary folder in your \Windows folder. If you then want to go
back and look at this same page again, Internet Explorer will
access this on- disk page, rather than taking time to open it
again from the Net. This speeds the process up. You can speed
things up even further by increasing the size of your cache
(amount of disk space devoted to this), if you have plenty of
free hard disk space. To do this: 

Press ALT T, O, and in the "General" property sheet TAB to the
"Temporary Internet Files Settings" button and press ENTER. Then
TAB to the "Amount of Disk Space to Use" box and left ARROW to
increase this or right ARROW to reduce it. Increasing from 1 or
2 per cent to 10 per cent should make a fair degree of
difference. Then press ENTER on OK twice. 

In the two last dialogue boxes you can view the contents of your
temporary Internet folder and empty it if you wish to reclaim
some disk space.

If you know that you have recently been on a particular Web page
which is updated regularly, the quick reload method which
Internet Explorer uses to speed page loading up may not suit your
needs. In this case, after the on-disk page has been loaded, you
can press F5 to "refresh" the page, which means that the browser
will be told to go back to the Website and reload the most up-to-
date version of the page you want. 

4.4. What are Web Pages and How are They Read

A Website is a collection of interlinked Web pages on a
particular computer on the Nett. The first page is the home or
index page. Web pages can contain text, pictures, animations and
audio and video clips. Pressing ENTER on a "link" on a Web page
may take you to another link on that same page, to another page
on the same Website or to a page on another computer altogether
anywhere else in the world.

When you have loaded a Web page of text and pictures and the text
on that screen has all been automatically read to you (24 lines
per screen), you press the PAGE DOWN key to hear the next screen
of information. Pressing PAGE UP takes you back a screen of
information and reads it. Pressing CONTROL PAGE down moves you
to the next page and CONTROL PAGE up takes you back a page. Up
and down ARROW keys should permit you to read the page a line at
a time, otherwise do this in your screenreader's navigation or
mouse mode.

Pressing the TAB key moves you forward to the next element on the
current page, e.g. link, button, editfield, etc, whereas pressing
SHIFT TAB takes you back an element. 

If you want to go back to the link you were last at (previous
page, previous site, etc), you press ALT LEFT ARROW key. If you
want to go forward a link, you press ALT RIGHT ARROW key.
(Remember, these two latter commands do not work if you are using
HAL 5X.) To
return directly to where you first started out, i.e. your opening
page when first launching your browser, press ALT HOME.

Internet Explorer also has a Go to visited page history feature,
so that you can view and go back to any page you have already
been to in the current surfing session. You get to this history
by pressing ALT V (for View( and then O (for Goto) and ARROWING
up and down the already visited page names and pressing ENTER on
any of them.

You are likely to find that every time you open a new page within
a site, you are presented at the top of the page with the same
list of pictures, advertisements, logos, navigational bars with
image buttons on them, list of links to go to, etc. The relevant
section of the new page you have loaded may only appear halfway
down the new page. You will have to ARROW or TAB quickly past all
of this time and again to find what you want, which is tedious
but necessary, unless your screenreader has a special jump past
header links shortcut or links only
links list facility which allows you to go easily to a specific
link, put links in alphabetical order, display only unvisited
links, etc, such as is available with the JFW 3.7 INSERT F7 and
INSERT F9 commands, The Window-Eyes 4.0 INSERT TAB and CONTROL
TAB commands or by downloading MS Powertoys and using its SHIFT
F10 and "Links List" option. Another way to quickly get past
these repeated header links is to press PAGE down once or twice
until you jump past them or, if the page has frames, press
CONTROL TAB once or twice to jump past the header frames. 

As you move around a Web page, in addition to encountering
readable text, you will come across icons and images (pictures)
which are meaningful to a sighted person but may be meaningless
to a screenreader. Your screen reader may only be able to
announce such as "image" or "bitmap" (or just say nothing) when
it falls on these pictures. However, if the Webmaster (the person
who wrote the Web page) has done his job thoroughly, he should
have placed text titles at the side of these icons which your
screanreader can read out to you to clarify what the picture is
or what will happen if you press ENTER on an iconised link. These
text titles are known as "ALT tags".

Some Websites employ what are known as "frames". A good
screenreader should be able to allow you to negotiate frames but
some cannot cope with them very well. A frame is an area on a Web
page where similar types of information is stored but there are
likely to be several frames on screen at once and, depending upon
what you do in one frame, the layout and content of another frame
may change. this usually makes browsing such sites more
difficult, although not necessarily impossible. The more up-to-
date and better quality screenreaders can now deal quite well
with frames and have special keystrokes to do this. The standard
Windows keystroke to move from one frame on a page to another is
to press CONTROL TAB until you get to the frame you wish to look
at and then you can ARROW down the information in the frame you
are currently on. CONTROL SHIFT TAB moves you backwards through
frames.

4.5. Reading Web Pages Offline

Remember, provided that you have a reasonable sized cache on your
hard disk to hold already visited Web pages, you can always go
to these already visited pages again without being online and
incurring phone costs. You may wish to do this if a particular
page is very big, with hundreds of links and considerable amounts
of text. You achieve this in the normal way by pressing CONTROL
O, typing in the Web page address and pressing ENTER. Internet
Explorer will attempt to take you online but you just TAB to the
"Work Offline" option and press ENTER. The on-cache page
)providing it exists on your hard disk) will immediately be
loaded for viewing in the usual way. If you decide that you want
to visit a specific link on the page, just press ENTER on it,
when you will be taken to the "Connect" button to go online and
find it if it also is not already on your hard disk cache. If
this too is in your cache, then it will be opened immediately
without you being taken online. 

You can, in fact, save much time by quickly going through all of
the links on a Website which interest you, starting with the home
page, opening them all one by one to get the related pages dumped
onto your hard disk. You can then, in the normal way, view the
pages and use the links on them to open other on-cache pages
without being on line. You can do this no matter how deep the
layers of sub-pages and sub-links go. However, you will not be
able to complete and then later submit things like order forms
with purchase basket details, credit card details, etc, without
first going online, normally via a Secure information server. If,
once you have come offline to examine the several pages you have
downloaded to cache, you press ENTER on a link which does not
have a corresponding page in your hard disk cache, you will be
taken online to that page.

One other thing you should keep in mind in respect of revisiting
Web pages on-cache is that, if the page has been in your cache
for a long time, it may be out of date, i.e. the site it came
from may have been updated since you originally visited it. In
this case, you will need to go back on line to obtain an up-to-
date cache copy of the relevant page or pages, which will
overwrite your original page or pages.

4.6. E-Mail Links on a Web Page

Many Web pages, particularly the home page, will contain an e-
mail link, so that you can press ENTER on this and then type in
a comment, request, etc. This link is often labelled "Send Mail".
What actually happens when you press ENTER on such a link is that
your default e-mail software will launch, e.g. Outlook Express,
and you can then complete the e-mail details in broadly the usual
way (see from step 4 in "Sending E-Mail" in Section 8 below for
step-by-step instructions). The "To:" line of the e-mail header
will have automatically been completed for you with the
recipient's e-mail address. After sending your e-mail message to
your e-mail Outbox, you will be returned to the Web page from
where you opened the e-mail client to continue surfing. Later you
will need to activate the send facility on your e-mail program
to finish the e-mail message sending process.

It is worth noting, however, that if you have a lengthy message
to send, you do not have to type it at the above online stage.
You can, instead, after pressing ENTER on the "Send Mail" link,
simply press ALT S to save the uncompleted message to your
Outbox, when only the e-mail "To:" address details will be saved.
Then, later, go into your Outlook Express Outbox, press ENTER on
the message and then complete the "Subject":" line and the whole
message body whilst offline. Finish by sending the message as
normal with ALT S followed by CONTROL M. 

4.7. The Internet Explorer Favourites Folder 

The favourites facility permits you to record and save the
whereabouts of given Websites, Web pages and links on pages you
visit and would like to quickly return to in future. The
favourites folder already has a number of already set-up
favourite places to be taken back to in it and you add others
yourself. The favourites folder is quite flexible, as
demonstrated below. You can export and send favourites elsewhere,
move them around, rename them, create sub-folders for them, print
them out, sort them by name within their current folder, view
their properties, and so forth. 

4.7.1. Using the Favourites Folder and Adding More Favourites to
It

You can place your favourite URLs (Internet addresses) in the
Internet Explorer favourites folder and organise the subfolders
in this folder but you must remember that Windows 95 uses this
same favourites folder in which to save favourites from other
programs. 

To bookmark or add the current page (on the Web site you are
presently at) to the favourites folder, press ALT a, and press
ENTER on "Add to Favourites". You will be offered a filename for
the page, so if this is acceptable just press ENTER. If not, type
a different
filename into the editfield you will be in and press ENTER. 

To go to one of your favourite Web pages, as bookmarked above,
press ALT A (for Favourites) and ARROW
down through the favourites folders, press ENTER on the one you
want and ENTER on the page name that you want.   

4.7.2. Viewing the Contents of Your Favourites Folder

To view the contents of your favourites folder, press ALT A and
ARROW down the list and press ENTER on any of the menu options
(but you may have to go into your screenreader's mouse navigation
mode to view the contents). 

An alternative way of displaying the contents of your Favorites
folder is by using the Run dialogue of Windows, e.g. press ALT
R, type favorites (American spelling) into the editfield and
press ENTER.You can then ARROW up and down and left and right and
press ENTER on any of the favourites to be taken online or to be
taken into a sub-menu of favourites if one exists. To leave this
favourites list, press ALT F4 once or twice. Note that you enter
favourites in this way without having Internet Explorer running
at the time and that you must use the American way of spelling
favorites.

4.7.3. Creating Folders and Sub-Folders within Favourites

To create folders or subfolders within favourites, when on an
existing favourites folder or sub-folder, press ALT A, O, and
press ENTER on the "Create New Folders" button. You can also
delete favourites from this dialogue and move files from one
folder to another. When you create a new favourites folder, it
appears on the favourites menu. 

For example, to delete a favourite, press ALT A, O, and then
ARROW up to the "Favourites" button and press ENTER. The
favourites list will open and you can ARROW down these to the one
you want to delete and press the DEL key followed by Y to confirm
the operation.

4.7.4. Organising, Deleting, renaming, Printing Out and making
other Modifications to favourites 

To alphabetise the contents of your Favorites folder, in order
to be able to find given listings in a long list more easily,
press ALT A (for Favorites) and then ARROW down to any favourite
listing and press SHIFT F10. Now from this context menu ARROW to
"Sort by Name" and press ENTER, so that your Favorites list will
now be sorted by page title. If you have sub-folders of
favourites running off from your main list, you will have to open
each folder and use SHIFT F10 to be able to alphabetise each sub-
folder. Note that there are numerous other actions which you can
effect from the above Context menu, such as deleting a favourite,
renaming a favourite, etc. 

Similarly, to get the favourite you are currently on in the
favourites folder/list, press SHIFT F10 and then ARROW down
through the list of possible actions you can carry out on that
favourite listing and press ENTER on it to achieve that action,
e.g. to print its details out, to rename it, to delete it, etc. 

4.7.5. Saving and Exporting a copy of Your Favourites Folder and
of Your Cookies for Safe Keeping or for Use on Another Computer 

For example, to export and save a copy of your favourites folder:

1. Press ALT A to open the folder.

2. Press ALT F (for File) and then I (for Import and Export) and
then press ENTER on "Next".

3. You will now be in a list containing four choices, namely to
import or export favourites or to import and export cookies.
ARROW to "Export Favourites" and press ENTER.

4. To highlight all favourites for exporting, press CONTROL A and
then ENTER on "Next".

5. You now export to a file by TABBING to a filename editfield
which, by default, is usually set to save to C:\My
documents\bookmarks.htm, so if this suits you, accept this path
and filename by TABBING to "Next" and pressing ENTER. If you
would like to save elsewhere, provide the path to this location
but ensure that you give the file an .htm extension, because it
is saved in HTML format, e.g.:

a:\bookmarks.htm

6. Lastly, press ENTER on "finish" and then on "OK".

7. You can now deal with this favourites file in two ways,
either:

A. On your current or another computer, go through the same
procedure as above but at step 3 select "Import Favourites" to
overwrite the favourites folder on that other machine with the
saved favourites folder.

B. Alternatively, if you do not wish to overwrite the favourites
folder on another computer, you could also carry this favourites
file around on your floppy disk or copy it to another computer
so that when you wish to go online to any of your favourite
Websites, you can just launch Internet Explorer, press CONTROL
O to open the Open dialogue and then type the favourite filename
in to open a list of your favourites links, e.g. type in
A:\bookmarks.htm. Now ARROW or TAB to the site link you want and
press ENTER on it to be taken online to that location.

Note 1: At step 3 above, if you had of chosen "Export Cookies",
you would have been able to save copies of your valuable cookies
for reinstallation if you ever lost them or for copying onto
another PC elsewhere, such as your laptop. By default, the
cookies text file saves to My documents and is called
"cookies.txt". This is covered in detail in Volume 2 of the
Internet tutorial.

Note 2: Saving your cookies and favourites bookmarks files can
be a worthwhile exercise to perform from time to time in its own
right as a means of backing up these valuable data files which
it may have taken you weeks or months to create and build up.

4.8. Saving a Page or Opened File in Internet Explorer

To save a Web page or such as an opened text file, with the page
or file on screen, press ALT F, A, type
in the path and filename to save to, such as a:\bbcpage or c:\my
documents\bbcpage, TAB to "Files of Type" and select the format
to save in,e.g. press T for a plain text format,  TAB to the
"Save" button and press ENTER. You can also TAB to and ARROW
through other folders in the above "Save As" dialogue box to save
to if you prefer, in the standard Windows way.

If you want to read your Web page or text file in a given
program, such as a Web browser or Microsoft Notepad, make sure
that you save the page in the appropriate format and give the
file a suitable filename extension, e.g. nero.htm or nero.html
to save a Web page from the Nero Burning-ROM Website in HTML
format or tutorial.txt to save an opened text file on screen
respectively. Of course, if you wanted to have your file
automatically open in Microsoft Word, then you could save it as
a rich text (rtf) or text (txt) file but specify that it has a
.doc extension. 

When, after saving the above page, you want to read it in such
as Microsoft Word or MS Wordpad, press CONTROL O and type:

c:\my documents\bbcpage.txt

or whatever you called it, in the editfield. Press ENTER and
Word or Wordpad (or most other editors and word-processors) will
open the file for you. You can, of course, also use Microsoft
Notepad to do this when Internet Explorer has been shut down by
using Notepad in the normal way via the Open option on the File
menu. 

Note: By default, Internet Explorer automatically saves copies
of the Web pages you have already been on and the cookies you
have downloaded in the Windows folder at:

C:\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\

under a filename such as Index.HTM or Index.html or whatever
other name the HTML file originally had. So, if you want to look
through these and possibly open one of them for reading offline,
you should use CONTROL O and type the path in in Internet
Explorer; or use the Run dialogue (ALT R) to do this; or, if you
do not know the exact filename of the HTML file, navigate to it
using Windows Explorer as usual.

4.9. Downloading a File from the Net or Opening it Online

When you are on a link on a Website which permits the downloading
of a file and you activate this link by pressing ENTER or
SPACEBAR on it, for example, a file with such as a .zip
extension, you will normally be placed in a dialogue box which
you can TAB through and which offers you two options. The default
option is "Save this Program to Disk" for you to download the
file and save it to your hard disk. The second option, which you
would need to ARROW to, is "Run this Program from its Current
Location", which permits you to open the file and run it from its
Website location before deciding whether or not to download and
save it. 

In the vast majority of cases, you should elect to save the file
to disk, so that you can then later run your virus-checker on it
to ensure that you have not downloaded a virus with the file,
particularly if the file is an executable file with such as a
.com, .exe or .dll extension, or a word-processor file. After
choosing to save the file to disk, you will be given the file's
current filename to save it to or you can type over this filename
with a filename of your own choice.

The second option, to open and run a file or document from its
current location, is not normally recommended. Having said this,
if the file you may wish to run from its current Website is not
an executable or word-processor file and you want to have a
glance at it before downloading it or you want to listen to a
sound file before downloading it, you can do so. This should be
safe to do with such as plain text (.txt) files and sound files
as these are not virus carrying executable or macro carrying
word-processor files. The file will open in its associated
program for you to view or listen to, e.g. Notepad with .txt
files or Windows Media Player with such as .wav files.

4.10. Doing Two Things at Once in Internet Explorer

You can continue to browse the Net whilst a file/program is
downloading. Whilst the download is going on, press ALT F, N, and
hit ENTER on "Window". You can now use the standard keystrokes
of CONTROL O (or ALT D), type in the page address and press
ENTER, to open
a new Web page. 

Similarly, you can open to windows as above but this time to load
in two Web sites with similar information on them to compare
each. You just view what is on Website/page one and then press
ALT TAB to move to the second Website/page to view that and use
ALT TAB again to move back to the first page. You can close any
of the windows by pressing ALT F4 on them.

4.11. Sending a Copy of a Web Page or Link to Someone Else

When you have a Web page on screen and would like to send a copy
of it to someone else, you can do this by:

1. Press ALT F (for file), E (for send).

2. You will now have three choices which you can ARROW through:
send "Page by E-Mail", send "Link by E-Mail" or send "Shortcut
to Desktop". The first of these will ensure that your Web page
is appended to an e-mail message and sent where you want it to
go; the second will send a link (URL) by e-mail, so that the
recipient can press ENTER on this and be taken to the Web page
you have on screen right now; and the third option will place a
shortcut on your Desktop to the page you are currently on, so
that you can press ENTER on this in future to have Internet
Explorer loaded and take you straight there. For this example,
I will deal with the "Page by E-Mail" feature.

3. With focus on the "Page by E-Mail" line, press ENTER, when
Outlook Express will be launched and you will find yourself in
the "To:" editfield to type in the e-mail address of the
recipient. Then TAB to "CC:" and "Subject:" and complete these
as normal.

4. Finally, you TAB to the message body, where your Web page will
be displayed. you can type above this a note to the recipient if
you wish.

5. With the process completed, just send the e-mail as usual,
with ALT S, ENTER and then CONTROL M. Then exit Outlook Express
to go back to Internet Explorer by pressing ESCAPE and N for no.
(See Section 8 for detailed instructions about how to use Outlook
Express.)

Note: If you only want to copy a link from a Web page to your
Clipboard for pasting elsewhere, you can do this, with focus on
the link in question,  by pressing ALT D, then CONTROL C. Then
move to wherever you want to paste the link and press CONTROL P.

4.12. Setting Privacy Levels and Obtaining a Report of a
Website's Privacy Policy

4.12.1. Setting Privacy Levels

In Internet Explorer 6.0 (but not earlier versions) you can set
six different levels of security so that cookies can either not
be placed on your hard disk by Websites or so that all cookies
can be accepted or there can be various levels of cookie
acceptance between these two extremes. A "cookie" is a small file
placed on your hard disk by some sites in order to keep your
details so that that site does not have to keep asking you for
them when you go onto it. However, some sites use cookies to
track your Internet movements without notifying you of this. You
may therefore wish to specify the type of site you will accept
cookies from and block cookies from sites you do not want them
from. To do this:

1. Press ALT T (for Tools) and then O (for Options).

2. CONTROL TAB to the "Privacy" property sheet.

3. You will fall on a slider which you can ARROW up or down on.
ARROWING up increases the level of cookie security from 40 per
cent through 60 per cent, 80 per cent to 100 per cent. The 100
per cent setting permits no cookies from anywhere but if you
ARROW downwards to 0 per cent you will be permitting all kookies
of all types. After ARROWING to a particular level, you can view
its security level details by going into mouse mode and reading
them.

4. If you now TAB on to "Advanced" and press ENTER, you can then
override the above automatic cookie handling by pressing SPACEBAR
on "OverRide Automatic Cookie Handling". Then TABBING forward
will reveal three options which you can ARROW up and down and
leave focus on, i.e. to accept cookies, to block (reject all)
cookies or to prompt you when a site attempts to place a cookie
on your computer so that you can either say yes or no to that
cookie from that particular site. Another TAB forward will permit
you to check on or off the acceptance of "Session" cookies, which
are only temporary cookies placed on your hard disk which would
in any case be removed when you finish interacting with the
Website in question. After making any entries in here, press
ENTER on "OK" to return to the first dialogue box.

5. TABBING on once more to "Websites" and pressing ENTER will
open a dialogue which permits you to type in the URLs of any
Websites you wish to actively manage. You can at any given time
"Block" or "Allow" cookies from the sites you have in your
managed sites list in this dialogue box.  

6. After making any changes in these two dialogues, tAB to "OK"
and press ENTER to finish.

4.12.2. Obtaining a Privacy Report of the Current Site 

In Internet Explorer 6, to view a site's/company's P3P privacy
policy information or to see if Internet Explorer restricted any
cookies from that site, you should:

1. Launch Internet Explorer and go on line to a particular site,
e.g. www.microsoft.com.

2. Press ALT V (for View) and then V (for Privacy Policy).

3. TAB through the various controls and note that if you press
ENTER on the "Settings" button, you in fact bring up one of the
dialogues mentioned in the above sub-section.

4. Other controls you may wish to activate are the "Show" and
"Summary" buttons. You can then TAB on to a list of privacy,
complaints procedure and similar types of information links found
on the site you are on. You can then press ENTER on any of those
links to find out what the site guarantees by way of privacy if
you have dealings with them. Its really only a quick way of
getting to this type of information rather than having to find
it on a large site by other means. If no such privicy or similar
details links can be found, you will be advised of this.  

4.13. Manually Completing Forms

You will frequently come across sites on the Net which require
you to fill in a form, for instance, to place an order for goods,
to search for something or to register yourself for a regular
monthly e-mail news letter. You will be asked to provide
information, such as your first name, last name, e-mail address,
home address, phone number, etc. Often, if any of these boxes is
left uncompleted, the form will be rejected and you will have to
start again. If you make a mistake on a form, there is usually
a "Reset" or "Back" button to clear the form and start again. 

To experience completing a form on the Web and submitting it try
the Freedom Scientific site to download a demonstration copy of
the latest offering of the JFW screenreader, which is currently
Version 4.02 ( but you might want first to try a more
straightforward download to get a feel for things first by
downloading Free Agent, seeSection 12 below):

1. Run Internet Explorer, press CONTROL O and type the following
address in:

www.freedomscientific.com

and press ENTER to get onto the Freedom Scientific Website.

2. When the Freedom Scientific home page comes up, TAB down
several times to the "Software Downloads" link and press ENTER.

3. The current software downloads page will be loaded, so you
press TAB several times to the "Jaws for Windows 3.5 Demo
Available" link and press ENTER.

4. Yet another page will open known as the JAWS for Windows
demonstration options page. TAB two or three times to the "JFW
3.5 Free Demo" link and press ENTER.

5. The JAWS for Windows 3.5 demo page comes up with many links
you can go to to learn out to use JFW and how to install it.
However, for now just TAB forward to the "JFW Demo Download" link
and press ENTER.

6. You are then presented with the demos users information form
for completion. TAB once to a button asking if you want a free
helpful information cassette to get started with the demo. It is
unchecked by default, so press the ENTER key on this line if you
want one.

7. The rest of the form is for user information as follows:

a. TAB forward one and type in your full name.

b. TAB once and type your company name in (type "None" if you are
not a company, as some forms are rejected if any editfields are
left blank).

c. TAB once to the first address line and enter your street
number and street name.

d. TAB once and if you have another address enter this;
otherwise, leave it blank.

e. TAB once more to the city field and enter "London" if that is
where you come from.

f. TAB again and you reach a list of countries, so press the "U"
key several times until "United Kingdom" is spoken.

g. TAB once more to the telephone editfield and type your phone
number in.

h. TAB once and enter your e-mail address (again, if you do not
have one you may have to make one up so that the form is not
rejected).

i. TAB to the demo selection list and ARROW up and down to
highlight why you want the demo, e.g. home evaluation,
considering an upgrade, etc.

j. TAB again to a list you ARROW up and down to indicate which,
if any, Henter-Joice or Freedom Scientific software you are
already using.

k. TAB once and ARROW to highlight which version of JFW you are
currently using with Windows, e.g. 3.2, 2x, etc. This option
should not appear if you have indicated that you are not
presently using JFW in J above.    

l. TAB once and ARROW again to highlight the version of Windows
you are running, e.g. Windows NT, Windows 98, etc.

m. TAB once to a list to ARROW through to show where you intend
to use the screenreader, eg. work, home, etc.

n. TAB again to an editbox asking which applications you most
frequently use and just type this information in as normal, e.g.
"I use Internet Explorer, Outlook Express and Word 8".

o. TAB once to the same type of editbox as the one above and type
in the names of any access programs you are using, e.g. Window-
Eyes, PWWebspeak, etc.

p. You now TAB once more to the "Submit" button and press the
SPACEBAR to finish and send the form.

8. The free demo download page then loads in and you should TAB
forward once to the "JAWS for Windows Free 3.5 Demo Download"
link (which tells you the file is 15.6 Mb in size) and press
ENTER. 

9. A message will then appear giving you two options: "Save to
Disk" or "Run the Program from its Current Location". If you are
not already on the save to disk option, ARROW to this and then
TAB to OK and press ENTER.

10. You will be told the default name of the file to be
downloaded, e.g. jfw35demo.exe. If this is OK, press ENTER;
otherwise, type in another file name and press ENTER. The file,
by default, will be saved on your Desktop but you can change this
by typing in the path to a different folder if you wish, e.g.:

c:\downloads\jfw35demo.exe

Assuming that you have already created a folder from your root
(C:) directory called "downloads". Thereafter, Internet Explorer
will remember this download folder and save all further downloads
to it.

11. The file download will commence and you will be given a
regular countdown of how many kilobytes have been downloaded to
the end of the download. The status line will indicate this. 

12. Within a few minutes of completing the download, you will
automatically be sent an e-mail by the Freedom Scientific
computer thanking you for downloading their program.  

13. To stop a download part way through, press the ESC key. You
may want to do this if the server is performing slowly due to
overload and taking too long.

Note: If your worst nightmare occurs and the form is rejected for
any reason, a screen will appear telling you why, e.g. if you
omitted to complete one of the editfields in A to O above. You
can go back to the form by pressing ENTER on the "back" button
at the end of the form.

If you do actually want the full JFW 3.5 demo to evaluate, I
would suggest you download it at off-peak phone charge periods
as it takes in the region of 45 to 90 minutes to download, with
a 33.6 Kb or faster MODEM.

14. Finally, you will have to run the jfw35demo.exe file to
install the program by pressing the Windows LOGO key and the
letter M together to get to the Desktop and then pressing the
letter J until you hear the filename spoken. You then press the
ENTER key to commence the uninstall shield wizard and follow the
on-screen prompts. If you have saved the jfw35demo.exe file
elsewhere, run it as normal via Windows Explorer or by using the
Start Menu "Run" facility and typing in the path to it.   

In this example you have experienced five distinct Internet
operations: firstly, you have gone onto the Web to a specific
website (step 1); secondly, you have surfed from one Web page to
others, albeit on the same site (steps 2 to 5); thirdly, you have
completed and submitted a Web form (steps 6 and 7); fourthly, you
have downloaded a compressed program file (steps 8 to 13); and,
fifthly, you have installed the program to your hard disk ready
for immediate use (step 14).

Note: Whilst some Websites will be found to be relatively easy
to use initially , most will require a degree of practise and
experience before the learner is comfortable in this type of
environment and other sites will be found to be completely
impenetrable by the most skilful visually impaired surfer because
they have been constructed so badly. For instance, some forms
will ask you to place a tick or cross in a particular box
somewhere on the screen to obtain something but you have no way
of knowing where this box is. Others may throw a rejected form
back to you asking you to try to complete particular editfields
again which have been marked with an asterisk but your
screenreader may not be able to "see" these asterisks. Only time,
much practise and even more patience will help you in the long
run.

4.14. Roboform Automatic Forms Completion Software

A company called Syber Systems Inc has created a free forms
completion program called AI Roboform. This software is designed
for you to enter all of your personal details into so that these
can then be automatically lifted and copied into a Website form
for you, for example, when completing a form to register for
online auctions or shopping. The program integrates itself into
Internet Explorer and resides on the Tools Menu as a "AI Roboform
Fill Forms" option. You can have several identities, so you can
have one with your exact, correct form completion details and
others with pseudonyms for gaining access to shopping sites to
have a look around, which would not let you in without form
completion in advance. This should make form filling a quick and
easy business, rather than often being time-consuming and
frustrating for blind users.

You can download this utility from the Syber Systems Website at:

www.roboform.com

After running the "roboform.exe" installation file, the software
sets itself up in the following folder:

C:\Program Files\Syber Systems\AI Roboform\

where you can find eight or so files and programs to run, e.g.
identities.exe, uninstall.exe, readme.txt. etc.

You can also find the "AI Roboform identities" menu option on the
Internet Explorer Tools Menu and this is where you set things up
with your personal details. Whilst the identities property sheets
are just about accessible with some screenreaders, when first
setting up this software, you may need a sighted friend with a
mouse to help you put your original personal details into the
program before you can use this utility. The "Credit Card" Tab
in particular is difficult to complete as it contains dropdown
lists and editfields which are not easy to manoeuvre. However,
once you have set up one accurate and one fictitious "identity",
you should be able to work with this program without any
problems. It is said to be over 95 per cent successful in
completing forms.

Note: If you have no experience of navigating Websites and
downloading files and programs, skip the AI Roboform download for
now, until you have followed some of the stage by stage examples
which come later in this tutorial, then return to this section. 

4.15. Quick and Easy Web Access with Microsoft Powertoys

Microsoft have provided a plug-in suite of accessibility
utilities called "Powertoys" which some screenreaders may benefit
from if they do not have their own built-in quick access shortcut
key equivalents. For instance, JFW 3.7 and Window-Eyes 4.0 do not
need Powertoys for providing a quick Web page links list but HAL
up to Version 4.04 can benefit from this plug-in. HAL 4.5 comes
with the Dolphin Link Navigator, so Powertoys are not
required. HAL Version 5 is even more Internet-friendly than
earlier versions and makes better use of MSAA. You can download
Powertoys from:

www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/Webaccess/ie5wa.exe

If you are using HAL. ensure that you read the installation
and operational instructions found at:

C:\Program Files\HAL95\Docs\webaccessories.doc

Otherwise, read any readme or other information files which may
come with the download.

In combination with a press of the SHIFT and F10 keys, the
Powertoys make it quicker and/or easier to achieve certain
operations, such as:

1. If part of a frame is being restricted by other frames, button
bars, etc, just press SHIFT F10 when you are in the frame and
then ARROW to "Open New Frame" and press ENTER.

2. You can quickly reach the search engine of your choice, e.g.
if you type into the address box "av Rolls Royce" and press
ENTER, the Altavista search engine will be automatically launched
and a search on the words "Rolls Royce" will be made. Similarly,
ex will start an Excite search, as and Infoseek search, wc a
WebCrawler search, Yahoo! search, etc.

3. To ensure that pages are downloaded quickly (if you have not
permanently turned pictures off as suggested in Section 6), press
ENTER on "toggle Images" in the Favourites Menu. Repeating this
procedure will turn image/picture loading back on. 

4. If you would like all of the links on a Web page to be placed
in a list so that you can easily and quickly TAB through them,
just Press SHIFT F10 and ARROW up to "Links List" and press
ENTER. 

5. After pressing SHIFT F10 you will find many more quick options
which you may wish to use instead of standard procedures, for
instance, to print out a Web page, add a URL to your Favourites
Menu, create a shortcut to the current Web page, etc. 

4.16. VIPs Web Access Gateway  

This free access gateway can perform many accessibbility
enhancements on Web pages, some of which you specifically ask it
to do and others which it will carry out automatically. For
instance, if you tell it to change the font size, type,
background colour, foreground colour, etc, to your particular
preferences, it will do this. It also supports many language
conversion abilities. 

The gateway is a website in its own right which intercepts other
Web pages you are wanting to access. So, if you are wanting to
go onto the Amazon Website, you first type in the address of the
gateway, advise it of your colour, font preferences, etc, and
them type in the Amazon Web address to go to. The Amazon Web page
will be adjusted by the gateway and then passed to your PC for
easy reading and navigation.  

Once activated, any other links on the page which the gateway has
rendered for you and which you press ENTER on will be found
automatically via the gateway and you can even save favourites
using the Favourites Menu, so that when you invoke them again
from the favourites list, they will be found again via the
gateway with your preferences already known. Therefore, you can
carry out your surfing via the gateway in future without ever
leaving it if you wish.

Some of the Web page changes and conversions which the gateway
will do for you automatically are:

* Remove JJavascript.

* Remove Java aplets.

* Expand frames into a single document.

* Render tables and columns into a single column.

* Remove the attributes from frames and tables.

* Replace images and bitmaps with their current ALT tag or guess
what an ALT tag should be from its link URL.

* Remove images from buttons.

* Remove style sheets.

* Remove fonts and colours or replace them with your preferences.

* Change italic, blinking and underlined text to bold.

* Remove double spacing between letters on headings.

* Replace ASCII art with words, e.g. smileys.

* Make consecutive links distinguishable from one another by
placing square brackets around them.

* Add an "end of Web Page" tag at the end of a page.

* Change automatic refreshes into links.

* Strip "no ling Breaks" and hight and spacer directives.

* Expand HTML 4 "acronym" tags.

* Promote headings which are below a certain level.

* Search tables and links for a query.

* Show a document's date stamp.

* Add status line text to links.

* Manage cookies.

* Make all text areas word-wrap.

* Make "Reset" buttons say reset.

* Show hidden form fields.

It will also attempt to:

* Extract URLs from Javascript.

* Display the parameters of Java aplets.

* Remove the banner of links to the bottom of a page.

Silas Brown of Cambridge University is the author of the gateway,
which can be found at:

www.flatline.org.uk/~silas

After loading the home page in, you should TAB to the "Web Access
Gateway" link and view the links and explanatory text provided
there.

4.17. Testing the Accessibility of a Website

The Bobby accessibility Web checker can be found at:

http://bobby.watchfire.com

You specify the URL of the site you want to have checked and you
will be given an idea of what needs to be done on that Website
to make it accessible to screenreader users. This will give the
visually impaired surfer an idea of the site's usability and you
can provide Webmasters with the URL of Bobby when asking them to
make their Websites more screenreader-friendly. 

The Aprompt accessibility Web checker can be found at:  

www.aprompt.ca

It provides a place to download a Web page accessibility repair
tool called A-Prompt to find problems with Website accessibility
and take the Web Master through how to fix them step by step. 

4.18. Quick Commands Context Menu for a Link

When you have focus on a Web page link, you can invoke a Context
Menu to quickly effect several of the most common commands you
may wish to carry out on a link, by:

1. With your cursor on the link in question, press SHIFT F10.

2. ARROW down the several commands you could press ENTER on to
have it carried out. For instance, you could copy the link to the
Clipboard, you could create a shortcut to it on your Desktop, you
could print it out, you could view its properties, you could have
it added to your Favourites folder and many more commands as well
as these, but the list changes depending upon which version of
Windows you have installed.  

3. If you wish to save a file or program associated with a link
you currently have focus on to your hard disk, you should press
ENTER on the "Save" or "Save Target As" option, when it will save
to your default saving folder.

4.19. Turning On or Off Automatic Disconnection to Your ISP

By default, Internet Explorer is set up to disconnect itself
automatically from the Internet after a given period of time if
there has been no activity on your phone line for that amount of
time or if the system thinks you have forgotten to disconnect.
this is a good idea for those with ISP connections which they
have to pay for by the minute but those who pay for their surfing
monthly and/or have a broadband connection may not wish to be cut
off like this. To enable, alter the timing of or disable this
automatic disconnection you should:

1. With Internet Explorer running, press ALT T (for Tools then
O (for Internet Options).

2. CONTROL TAB to the "Connections" property sheet and then TAB
to the "Settings" button and press ENTER. 

3. Now TAB to the "Advanced" button and press ENTER.

4. TAB to the editfield just below "Disconnect if Idle For" item
and if, say, the number of minutes you are set up to disconnect
is less or more than you want, BACKSPACE this figure out and
enter your preferred figure. Otherwise, leave it blank if you do
not wish to be automatically disconnected after a specified
period of inactivity.

5. Now TAB once to "Disconnect When Connection May No Longer Be
Needed" and, if you do not wish Internet Explorer to anticipate
a disconnection for you, press SPACEBAR to uncheck this.

6. Lastly, TAB to each "OK" button and press ENTER on them as you
back out of these several dialogue boxes. 

Note: If you have a broadband ADSL Internet connection, you are
always online, as soon as you turn your computer on. When you
carry out an Internet-based action, such as sending an e-mail,
receiving an e-mail, uploading a file to your ISP Website, etc,
you therefore do not have to go online, so these things happen
automatically for you, e.g. an e-mail will land in your Inbox
without you having to request it.  

4.20. Ensuring that Your Online Transaction Details are Not
Automatically Saved to Disk 

If you share a computer with someone else or if you are online
for long periods and do not have a firewall to prevent hackers,
others may be able to get access to your online transaction
details, such as your bank account or credit card information.
You can stop details of such transactions from being save to your
hard disk by Internet Explorer in the temporary internet files
folder (which would normally automatically happen) by:

1. Press ALT T (for Tools) and then O (for Internet Options).

2. Then CONTROL TAB to the "Advanced" property sheet.

3. Now ARROW down the long list of checkable options you will be
in to "Do Not Save Encrypted Pages to Disk" and press SPACEBAR
to check this on.

4. Lastly, TAB to "OK" and press ENTER to finish. 
Henceforth any secure (HTTPS) Website you have visited and
possibly provided personal and/or financial details on will not
be saved to your hard disk.

4.21. Viewing the History List of Already Visited Web Pages and
their Contents

In addition to viewing the history of already visited Web pages
in the current session whilst online, as described earlier in
this section, you can, whilst offline, view the past history of
Websites and pages you have previously been on, going back
several weeks. How far you can go back will depend on how many
days of past surfing you have selected to keep on your hard disk
in the General property sheet of Tools, Options. Typically this
will be 20 or 30 days of retained history. Using the history
feature will allow you to view pages without having your phone
line open and it may be a good way of reminding yourself of the
Websites and pages you visited some time ago if you have
forgotten the URL of any of them. 

There are two quick ways you can do this:

1. With Internet Explorer running and being offline: 

A. Press CONTROL H.

B. You will come into a list of past surfing periods and are
likely to be on "Today". If you ARROW up you will encounter "Last
Week", "Two Weeks Ago", etc, depending how long you have been
accessing Web pages and your number of days to keep Web pages on
disk settings.

C. Press ENTER or right ARROW on any of these and you will be
taken into an expanded list of all the Websites you visited in
that particular week. If you now press right ARROW again you will
access the individual pages you previously read on the site in
question.

D. Pressing ENTER or SPACEBAR on one of these pages will open it
up for reading again. Internet Explorer will probably try to take
you online to this particular Web page, so press the ESCAPE key
to prevent this and you will then get the on-disk copy of this
page loaded for reading as it appeared when you last went onto
that site/page.

E. Just TAB and ARROW around this page in the normal way. If you
decide you want to go back online via one of the links on this
page, just press ENTER or SPACEBAR on that link and you will be
taken online to whatever the link points to.

F. To close the history list and Internet Explorer, press ALT F4.

2. With Windows 95 and 98, you can also access this history list
(but this time in a Windows Explorer environment) via the Windows
Run feature. In this case, you would not have Internet Explorer
running when you did this:

A. Without Internet Explorer running, press Windows key and R.

B. In the editfield you will now be in, type "history" and then
press ENTER.

C. You will now be in the same list of options mentioned in B
above, e.g. "Today", "Last Week", etc, so ARROW to your choice
and press ENTER or right ARROW.

D. You will find that things work much the same as described in
the previous sub-section, although you should find you have a
little more flexibility with this method of viewing your surfing
history, namely you can move around in the same way as you would
in Windows Explorer, e.g. if you want to move back a folder level
in the page/links structure, you would press the BACKSPACE key.
You can view the Website/pages you visited in the past period,
the sub-pages/links and the contents of specific pages in this
way whilst offline. Pressing ENTER on a page to read it will open
up Internet Explorer to read it in. If there is an attempt to
take you online, just press ESCAPE to stop this. 

E. This view of your Web surfing history has its own menu
structure, so press the ALT key and ARROW left and right and up
and down to see what is possible. You press ALT F, C, to close
the history feature.

4.22.  The Internet Explorer Help System

Internet Explorer and Outlook Express both have a typical
Windows-type help system interface. The two main features of this
help are the Contents and Index facilities. To enter the help
system, press ALT H and then ENTER on "contents and Index". You
will normally fall into the "Contents" sheet, where you can ARROW
down various chapters until you reach the one you want to read.
You then press ENTER on it and may either then obtain further
sub-headings to ARROW through or just be presented with the text
to read. You may have to press F6 to commence the reading of text
and then PAGE DOWN to get the next page of information, if there
is one. Pressing F6 again should take you back to the list of
subjects and topics to choose another to read. You may wish to
go to the "Accessibility" chapter at the
end of the contents list and have a good look through its sub-
headings to see some of the features provided by Microsoft for
people with various disabilities.  

To move from the "Contents" sheet to the "Index" sheet, press
CONTROL TAB. You can then type in any word or phrase you want to
have found and then TAB to a list of one or several possible hits
on this word. ARROW up and down this list and when on the
word/phrase that seems appropriate, TAB to "Display" and press
ENTER followed by F6 to get the text read to you. To move back
from the "Index" to the "Contents" page, press CONTROL SHIFT TAB.

To move back from the Contents or Index text field of topics and
sub-topics to select another topic, press F6 again. To leave
either type of help altogether, press ALT F4.

Additionally, when in a dialogue box, in an editfield, on a
control, etc, if you want a quick explanation of what this does,
just press F1. Then press ESC to leave this context sensitive
help.  

Note 1: Internet Explorer 5.5 is almost identical to version 5.0
in its general operation, property sheets, folders, shortcut
keystrokes, etc, but if you have Internet Explorer 5.5 and want
to view the additional features in that version over version 5.0,
plus some no longer supported options, see the "Readme.txt" file
in the c:\Program Files\Outlook Express subfolder. The main
improvements/changes in IE 5.5 over IE 5.0 are in improved
running speeds and enhanced encryption abilities. You may,
however, get better results from an up-to-date screenreader over
one which was created before IE 5.5 was released, so check with
your screenreader manufacturer before upgrading to IE5.5.

Note 2: To see a full list of Internet Explorer shortcut
keystrokes, go to Appendix 4. 

                           ********

                           >SECTION 5

            Taster SITES TO FIND FILES AND PROGRAMS

A Website (or "site") is merely a computer that has an address
on the Internet.

5.1. Website Walk-Through Example

A US site which contains many blind-friendly games and programs
of interest for free downloading is:

www.henrichsen.org

It holds files and programs such as pkz204g.exe PKZIP compression
program for DOS, blist.txt containing a list of visually impaired
mailing lists, fp-305.zip FPROT virus checker, htmst708.zip HTML
file to plain text file converter, accs405.exe Adobe Acrobat 4.05
access plug-in for Windows 95/98, poxchat.zip program to let you
talk to others over the Internet, alarm95s.exe speech-friendly
scheduler for Windows 95, powertoy.exe Microsoft add-ons for
Windows 95, sshtml10.zip HTML tutorial, audibl03.exe paper money
identification program for windows 95, scten204.zip which cleans
up and formats scanned ASCII documents, nfbtr754.zip NFB Braille
translation program (American Braille), syscap.zip to capture
boot-up information to a file, regcln41.exe to clean up your
Windows 95 registry, and many, many more.

I will walk you through this site as another example of how to
get around Websites. for other practical examples of navigating
Websites, completing forms and downloading software, see Section
4, under "Completing forms" and Section 12 under "Downloading
Free Agent". However, remember that the Web is a living entity
and by the time you go onto the Henrichsen site things may have
changed a little or substantially.

Steps to follow:

1. Start Internet explorer as normal (see Section 4, under
"Launching Internet Explorer").

2. Press CONTROL O and in the address box which opens type: 

www.henrichsen.org

and press ENTER.

3. If you are not already online, the Dial-Up Network connection
program will come up and you should press ENTER on the "Connect"
button.

4. Your MODEM may or may not make dialling out sounds but you
should go online within a minute or so.

5. The Henrichsen home page will load in and your screenreader
should start talking, reading the page title and the text on the
page.

6. Go to the top of the page by pressing CONTROL HOME and then
come down the links by pressing the TAB key (SHIFT TAB moves you
back a link).

7. You can listen to any text on the screen as it is spoken or
ARROW up and down it to listen line by line. Pressing PAGE down
takes you to the next page of text and PAGE up goes back a page.

8. Moving down the page will eventually take you to some of Paul
Henrichsen's favourite sites,so to have a look at one of these
when you reach the "Resources on the Internet" link, press ENTER
and the Resources on the Internet home page will load in with
hundreds of links of its own. You can TAB and ARROW through this
site to see what it offers, which is a rich resource of Internet
information and contact points.

9. After you have finished browsing the Resources on the Internet
page and links, if you want to go back to where you came from,
press ALT left ARROW and you will return to the Paul Henrichsen
home page at the place you left it.

10. If you wanted to skip straight back to the Resources on the
Internet home page, you would press ALT right ARROW.

11. From the Henrichsen home page, if you are interested in
looking at what files and programs there are to download to your
computer, TAB to the  "Great Files to Download on my FTP Site"
link and press ENTER to open up the FTP downloads page. You can
speed this process up by searching for the link by pressing
CONTROL HOME to go to the top of the page and then CONTROL F,
typing in "download" and pressing enter. You may stop at several
references to download before you get to the actual link. When
you are at this link, press ENTER.

12. The FTP download page will load in and is headed "Index of
Files". You can then ARROW down, listening to the text as you go,
to "Please choose from the following". Under this there are many
links which allow you to download files and programs to your hard
disk.

13. TAB to (or search for) the link with the FPROT virus checker
on it and press ENTER.

14. The "Save to Disk" option will be spoken, so press ENTER to
accept this and either accept the filename it provides and press
ENTER on the "Save" button, when it will be saved to your Desktop
by default, or type a new name in with the path you want to save
it to, e.g. c:\download\fprot.zip, TAB forward to "Save" and
press ENTER. (This, of course, assumes you have already created
a folder from your c:\ root directory called "Download".)

15. Keep a check on the Title Bar and Status Line to observe the
state of download progress. This program will not take long to
download and when it is finished you will be told "Download
Complete". This may take ten or fifteen minutes, depending on the
speed of your computer and MODEM. 

16. You will now have the FPROT free virus scanner to protect
your computer from viruses if you do not already possess a virus
checker. You will have to decompress the .zip file with a program
such as PKZIP for DOS or WINZIP for Windows. This same Henrichsen
Website contains PKZIP for download. 

To view the products of GW Micro, download a copy of the Window-
Eyes screenreader, view newsletters, etc, browse to:

www.gwmicro.com

and PAGE and ARROW around, press enter on some of the links, use
the ALT left and right ARROW keys to move back and forth between
pages, etc.

To view a similar site to GW Micro in the UK, with newsletters,
downloads and product advertisements go to:

www.dolphinuk.co.uk

To obtain lists of computer books with free excerpts and other
books for sale, how to create your own Website, etc, browse to:

net.dummies.net

Another site similar to the above Henrichsen site of interest but
this time in the UK which is owned by a blind Web author is
maintained by Tom Lorimer. You can download several
useful free and shareware programs, e.g. download managers, MP3
players, Web search engines, etc. Tom has also created and made
available a HTML Web page creation tutorial which can be
downloaded. This site is at:

www.whitestick.co.uk.

To view a list of many more useful websites, after getting
experience with those mentioned above, skip to Appendix 3. 

                           ********

                           >SECTION 6

                      WEB SEARCH ENGINES

A Web search engine is a means of finding where such things as
information on particular topics can be found on the World Wide
Web, or the whereabouts
of someone's website or a company's Web home page.

When using the Web and searching for things on it, it is likely
to be in your interest to ensure that your screenreader's read
punctuation is turned on so that it will echo all punctuation
marks to you. 

There are two main types of search engines: Directory-based and
index-based. These can be found on and run from the Web itself,
although there are many search engines which can be run from your
hard disk, such as Cowpernic and Ferret, the former being
downloadable free from:

www.Cowpernic.com

and the latter from:

www.ferretsoft.com 

The Ferret suite of programs can also find FTP and Telnet sites
for you. There is even a IRC Ferret search engine to find chat
rooms covering specific topics for you. 

The search engines examined below are all of the type which run
directly from the Web instead of being resident on your hard
disk. 

6.1. Starting a Search Engine

The search engines mentioned below either have a "com" or "co.uk"
suffix but in many cases you can use either. However, you must
remember that if you go onto a Website with the suffix "com", you
are more than likely to have entered an American search engine
or general site, whereas using a "co.uk" suffix will load the
same site but with a UK emphasis.

You start up a search engine by going to its site on the Web. For
example, to run the Google search engine, start up Internet
Explorer (orany other Web browser) and press CONTROL O to get
onto the address box. Then type the Google Web address in, which
is:

www.google.co/uk 
(If in the UK) 

or

www.google.com 
(If in the US)

and press ENTER. Google will load up after a few seconds and you
can TAB a few times to its search string editfield/form and type
in the word(s) you want found, TAB down to the "Google Search"
button, and press ENTER.  Google will search on as many websites
as Google can access. You can then PAGE or ARROW down several
times to the "Google Results"  heading and observe the sites
which were found below this. Press ENTER on any one of these to
go to it. (For more about Google, see the "Google" sub-topic
below.)

Note: Google has now become so popular that frequently, when you
go to many more specialist e-mail information addresses, what
will actually open up is one of the facilities of Google, as
Google has absorbed many of them.

6.2. Standard Search Engines

Standard search engines are stand-alone searchers using their own
search capacity only, whereas meta-search engines combine the
search abilities and findings of several engines to obtain more
hits on a given search word or string.

6.2.1. Yahoo!

This started out as a stand-alone search engine and is a
directory search tool at: 

www.yahoo.com 

It then allied itself with Google and used Google as its search
engine, only to devorce itself from Google and return to its own
search engine at the beginning of 2004.

When using Yahoo! you can either enter key search words in the
search editfield or move down the directories, pressing ENTER on
the topic/category links you are interested in, until you get
down the hierarchy of directories to the pages you want to
browse.
 
However, you can get to where you need to be more easily and
quickly by using Yahoo!'s own search box, near the top of the
Yahoo! home page. For example, if you wanted to find a book
called "Computers for Beginners", you would type this into the
search editfield and press ENTER on the "Submit" button.

By choosing the "Options" button next to the submit button you
can change some of Yahoo!'s search defaults, such as the default
3 year backward search. 

Yahoo! also has other search databases available, such as Yellow
Pages, to find companies; People Search, to find people,
addresses and phone numbers; City Map, where you can type in a
street name to bring up a street map of the area; and Today's
News, for news, shares and sport results. However, these searches
will be US-based so you will have to use www.yahoo.co.uk to get
this type of information in respect of the UK.

For the four years up to the beginning of 2004, Yahoo had been
using the Google search engine in the background to achieve its
search results. Since then it has started to use its own Web
crawlers and search engine, called search.yahoo.com, and it
claims that it has several billion Web pages indexed for
searching through. 

6.2.2. Altavista

This is an index-based search engine at:

www.altavista.co/uk 
For UK users

or

www.altavista.com
For US users

Altavista is an index searcher which is likely to bring up too
many page hits, so you can refine your search string to thin this
out. Altavista will find the best matches it can from your search
string but not necessarily exact matches. Do not use linking
words in your search string such as and, of, the; just put the
key words in, e.g. sun moon, not the sun and the moon. Other ways
of refining a search are to use capitals for proper nouns,
putting quotes around linking words such as "Cliff Richard" or
by using plus (+) or minus (-) signs to include or exclude words
such as +Cliff +Thorburn -Richard to get hits on Cliff Thorburn
and none on Cliff Richard. You can also use wild cards when
searching, e.g. If you search for John Williams* Altavista will
also bring up results for such as John Williamson, John
Williamside, etc. 

You will observe a "Translate" link on the Altavista engine which
you can activate if the current Web page is not in English to get
a broad translation into English. This free translation feature
is called Babel Fish and can translate several languages into
other languages and can also be accessed via:

http://world.altavista.com 

To search Usenet newsgroups choose the "Search the Web" box and
then move to "Search Usenet". 

Note 1: Near the bottom of the Altavista home page there is a
"Text only" button you can select to get rid of most of the
annoying graphics on this site.

Note 2: At the bottom of the Yahoo! page you will find a link to
Altavista and vis versa to be able to search on the other
company's engine if you have not found anything on the first
engine's search. The same key search words will be accepted.  

6.2.3. Raging

This is at:

www.raging.com

Raging.com is a search engine which is very accessible as it
is a basic text search engine with no advertisements, etc, to
distract you. You can also configure this engine, e.g. use the
"Family Filter" to exclude sexual or expletive pages, you can
search the Web in as many as 25 different languages at the same
time, the "Translate" option lets you see the result of a Web
search in the language of your choice, etc. 

6.2.4. Ask Jeeves

This is at:

www.askjeeves.com

AskJeeves is a search engine which works by you typing a question
into its search box. It then interprets this question by looking
at the key words in it and giving you several of its own
interpreted questions from your original query for you to search
on. You just choose one of these and AskJeeves will go onto the
Net and find what it can for you. More recently, Ask Jeeves has
added a "Smart Search" feature to its search engine to find
answers on definitive questions like "Who is Abraham Lincoln",
when you will receive answers in Encyclopedia format with
pictures and links to more Web-based details from the Ask Jeeves
database. This Smart Search feature is expected to be done on a
worldwide Internet basis and not just from the Ask Jeeves data
base by the summer of 2005.

6.2.5. Microsoft's MSN Search

The MSN Search engine from Microsoft which came out in January
2005 can be found at:

http://search.msn.co.uk

or 

http://search.msn.com

and it incorporates several features as well as the usual Web
page/site searching ability. You can also type standard questions
into the editfields and receive answers like with Ask Geeves and
you can access local maps and routes to follow. It is able to
access over 5 billion pages. 

6.2.6. Cd Wizard

You can download this screenreader-friendly shareware program to
play, catalogue and search for information on your Cd collection.
Whilst you are playing a CD, the software permits you to go onto
the Internet and it will find details about the artists on that
CD. Other information on the current CD which will be found will
be such as the titles of each track on the CD and advise about
where to buy more CDs by this/these artistes. The CD Wizard also
lets you keep a database catalogue of your cd collection,
together with any information it previously retrieved from the
Net about the CD and artists. It can be found at:

www.bfmsoft.com/  

6.2.7. UK-Based Specific Search facilities

Some other UK-based search engines which find only UK-related
information are:

UK Plus at:

www.ukplus.co.uk

The UK Index at:

www.ukindex.co.uk/uksearch.html

UK Yellow Pages at:

www.yellow.co.uk

G.O.D. at:

www.god.co.uk

Infoseek UK at:

www.infoseek.co.uk

Lycos UK at:

www.lycos.co.uk

6.2.8. Accessible Result Specialist Search Engine

The Accessible Result serch engine is designed only to search for
and find Websites which are certified as being screenreader
accessible. It can find over 1,000 of these worldwide and more
are sure to be indexed as time goes by. It is at:

www.net-guide.co.uk

6.2.9. UK Traders and Shops Search Engine

To search and find only UK traders/shops to find goods you can
use:

www.froogle.co.uk

6.3. Meta-search Engines

Some more recently introduced meta-search engines, since the year
2000, which grab
several of the traditional search engines and run them
simultaneously to obtain more hits or which use multiple search
engines of their own, are:

6.3.1. Google and its Family of Utilities 

This very popular and easy to use with a screenreader meta-search
engine is at:

 www.google.co.uk 
(for the UK)

or

www.google.com 
(for the US) 

or

www.google.ca
(for Canada)

Google attempts to categorise Web pages and headings on pages in
order of importance by checking how many references other Web
pages have to each page it finds. The pages which are referred
to and linked to the most will be shown at the top of Google's
results list.

By default, on the Google UK engine, Google will search for all
instances of what you want to find worldwide but there is,
shortly after the "Search" button, a box labelled "Pages from the
UK" you can ARROW down to and check on by pressing the spacebar
on it in order to have searches don on UK resources only.

In January 2004 Google boasted an ability to search on over 4.2
billion Web pages and Google have said that by the end of 2004
they will have increased this to 8 billion pages. To learn more
about Google, go to the "All
About Google" link on the home page. To narrow a search down,
Google contains a "Google Web Directory" where you can search the
Web by specific topics.

Many well-known Websites offering their own search engine
facilities actually use Google in the background to do their
searching with, e.g. even Yahoo, for the four years up to the
beginning of 2004, used Google for its search results, although
it no longer does so.

6.3.1.1. Using Google with a Screenreader and Availability of
Scripts

To be able to type a search word or string of words into the
Google search editfield, with most screenreaders, you firstly
need to press ENTER to enter forms or editingmode. This editfield
is near the top of the page, about five TAB presses from the top.

You can download JAWS scripts to make Google even more accessible
with JFW from:

www.accessibleprograms.com

6.3.1.2. Narrowing Searches Down in Google

When using the straightforward Google editfield near the top of
the page to enter your search words for searching the Web on, if
you find that you are getting too many pages of information by
searching on a given number of words, you can narrow the search
down by placing your search words within quotes. For example:

If you search on:

guide dog food

You will get Google finding and displaying all Web information
it finds on all three words independently, i.e. any Web page with
the word "guide", any page with the word "dog" and any page with
the word "food". You will certainly get many pages selling "dog
food". This could amount to many thousands of pages.

However, if you place these three words in quotes as follows:

"guide dog food"

You will dramatically reduce the number of pages found, because
Google will only return pages to you which have that string or
phrase of all three words on them. Most of them will not be
specific to guide dogs for the blind but they willl be to do with
guides to different dog foods, etc. 

Further refinements and narrowing-down operators which you can
use to fine-tune and target Google's searches are:

If you want Google to find Web pages which contain the words dog
and food, you would type into the search box:

dog OR food

(Note that the operator "OR" above should be in capital letters.)

If you wish to exclude pages which contain a word, you would
precede the word by the - (minus sign). So to search for dog but
not food, you would use:

dog -food 

In common with many other search engines, Google drops certain
common words such as where, what, how, I, the, and the like when
it searches. If you need to make sure that one of these common
words is retained and used in your search, if it is important to
the search, you can achieve this by preceding it with a + (plus
sign), e.g.:

+What PC 

to find information about the What PC computer magazine.

In Google you can combine phrases with the use of operators
including "AND", "OR" and "NOT" (note that these operators should
be capitalised). For instance, if you want to find Web pages with
the exact phrase "what PC" which also contain the words "Access"
and "database", you would use:

"What PC" AND Access "database"

If you use the tilde operator, you can locate pages with a given
word on them plus this word's common synonyms, e.g.:

"Guide ~ dog"

Google will search for pages containing "guide" with "dog" plus
such as "canine", "mongrel", "coyote", etc, but the references
to these synonyms may be well down many thousands of hits which
Google will find on "guide dog" first.

You can also restrict your search by specifying the domain to
search. For example, to find pages containing "guide dog
training" but only those on UK academic Websites, you would use:

"guide dog training" site:ac.uk

And to search one particular site only, use such as:

"white stick" site:www.rnib.org.uk

6.3.1.3. Using the Google Advanced Search facility

Google also offers an "Advanced Search" link and, if you press
ENTER on this, you can refine your searches to tailor them to
even tighter search criteria. What you get is a form which you
complete with your search details.

6.3.1.4. The Google Image Search Feature

You can access Google's image search feature to find individual
or lists of pictures at:

http://images.google.com

This works in a similar way to the standard Google word searcher
but is not quite as customisable or accurate in its findings. It
can find hundreds of thousands of images throughout the world and
you can narrow down searches with its usual "Advanced" facility.
You can also limit searches to given file types and to searching
in specific countries and even on given Web domains. For example,
to do a basic search for a picture of Elvis Presley you could
find them all with the following syntax typed into Google images
normal search box:

"Elvish Presley" 

Google will find all pictures of Elvish with extensions/formats
of .jpg, .gif or .png.

You can use most of the usual search narrowing down syntax and
modifiers in Google search as in the basic Google word search
facility.

6.3.1.5. Google's Goods Catalogue Searching Feature

In late 2002 Google created a specific catalogue search ability
after it scanned over 1,500 hard copy mail order catalogues. You
can search these catalogues looking for brands of items or for
a specific product. It then displays the product pages with
matches from all of its scanned catalogues. The URL to this
catalogue search is:

http://catalogs.google.com 

6.3.1.6. Google's International News Search feature

Google also features an international news locator with news from
multiple sources with the date on which the news flash was
current. It is at:

www.news.google.com/news/gmworldleftnav.html

You can use all of Google's search operators to find news pages
on this news facility. 

6.3.1.7. Google's Print Book Search Facility  

In late 2003, Google added yet another facility. This is the
"Google Print Beta or "Google Print". It lets you request to view
the contents of books online on specific topics, with a view to
seeing if they are suitable and then letting you go to other
sites to purchase them online. Google does not sell them, it just
provides the facility to find and view them. What you do is type
in the normal search editfield the book search URL followed by
the topic you want to find books on and view some pages on. for
example, to view pages on home brewing of beer, wine, etc, you
would type in the search box:

print.google.com home brewing

You will find several hits on Websites for home brewing and below
these texts of pages from books on that subject. To view the
text, press ENTER on links entitled "book-beta" to view extracts
of up to 20 per cent of the contents of each book. There will
also be links to online book sellers stocking each book, e.g. to
Amazon, Barnes and Noble, etc.

Note: Since mid-2004, The above beta book viewing service has
been fully adopted by Google and is getting many more books
scanned into it daily. Therefore, the word "Beta" is no longer
featured in its links andd literature.   

6.3.1.8. Google's E-Mail and Website Service

In April 2004, Google moved into the business of offering Web-
based e-mail facilities and a good amount of free Web space for
customers' to upload their own Web pages to. The Google e-mail
service is called Gmail. This is at:

http://gmail.google.com 

As implied, though, this has to be accessed on the Google site
to read your e-mail and is not yet something which permits you
to download messages to such as Outlook Express. However, this
may change in the future.


Tip: On the Gmail Web site there is a basic HTML view which can
be clicked on within your account on the screen which will allow
some screenreaders to better interact with many of the settings
and functions of Gmail. In this way, any links and message
conversation views will be available. The icon to click to turn
this on is near the bottom of the window. However, to be able to
change certain settings you may have to go back into the normal
mode.

6.3.1.9. Google Desktop Search

Yet another addition to the Google arsenal of utilities, which
came out around the end of Summer 2004, is the Google Desktop
Search feature. The executable file is less than a 500 Kb
download and is at:

http://desktop.google.com

but you will need a minimum of 500 Mb of free disk space to
install and configure it.

After installation, the Google Desktop Search looks the same as
the standard Google interface. You will have to let the program
perform an index of your system files and you must have MS
Outlook or Outlook Express open at this time so that e-mails will
also be indexed, permitting e-mail files to also become part of
any search you do. This indexing process may be an overnight task
for many users.

You start a Google Desktop Search by double clicking on an icon
in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen to open its search
page in Internet Explorer.

Google's Desktop Searcher is much more thorough in its searching
and much faster than other hard disk searching tools, such as the
Windows Find feature. It can search most files and you can tell
it to look for given words or strings of words within files such
as MS Word, Powerpoint and Excel files. It can also search within
e-mails you have in MS Outlook or Outlook Express, Web pages you
have been on with Internet Explorer and amongst any instant
messaging discussions you have entered into with AOL Instant
Messenger. 

You can even get the Google Desktop Search facility to
simultaneously search both the Internet for information and your
computer's hard disk.

A current weakness of the infant Google Desktop search (but which
is likely to be improved in future) is that it cannot search for
or in files such as non-AOL chat files, non-Microsoft e-mail
clients such as Eudora and it also cannot search on the Net in
such as Firefox, Mozilla and Thunderbird browsers. It also cannot
index the contents of files such as RTF files and PDF files.

Note 1: This first version of the Google Desktop Searcher is only
usable on Windows XP and 2000. 

Note 2: If you find that the Google Desktop program is constantly
trying to go online, it could be that you need to ensure that
"Send Non-Personal Usage Data and Crash Reports to Google" is
checked off. It is found by going to your Sys Tray (e.g. INSERT
S or Windows key B with Window-Eyes, left SHIFT Numpad / with HAL
and INSERT F11 with Jaws) and then by ARROWING to "Preferences"
and press ENTER and go to the bottom of the screen to turn the
above option off if it is on.

6.3.1.10. Google Scholar Scientific and Academic Specialist
Research Searching Feature

In November 2004 Google started to offer what is known as Google
Scholar. It is designed to specifically assist scientists and
other academics to easily find specialist information on the Web
for research purposes. It can be accessed at:

scholar.google.com

Google Scholar was created in collaboration with several
scientific and academic publishers from peer-reviewed papers,
books, abstracts and technical reports.

6.3.2. AllTheWeb 
This is at:

www.alltheweb.com 

It is run by Dell and usually finds many thousands of pages.

6.3.3. Seti-Search 

This is at:

www.seti-search.com 

Seti-Search is a customised search engine for the visually
impaired. It attempts to be easier to use for blind people and
has search boxes both at the top and bottom of the page for ease
of location. 

6.3.4. Dogpile

This one is at:

dogpile.com

Completes multi-search engine searches.

6.3.5. Astalavista

This is at:

astalavista.box.sk/banner3/index.html

This is yet another multi-search engine searcher.

6.3.6. YouSearched

You can access this UK-based engine provider at:

www.yousearched.com

Here is a specialist search engine which only came into existence
in 2004 and which is specifically designed for use by disabled
people, including visually impaired people, people with colour
blindness, those with hand and other dexterity disabilities, and
so on. Since it is designed for disabled people and meets many
widely accepted international standards for accessibility, you
should have little or no trouble when using this engine.

6.3.7. Vivisimo

This is another good meta-search engine for VI people which can
be found at:

http://vivisimo.com


Note: If you have an idea of what a Web page index page (home
page) may have in its title bar, you may be able to find it by
typing such as 'title:"leeds rugby"' into the search engine.

6.4. Finding Companies

To search for a company first type the company name into the
standard search box at the top of a search engine. If this does
not find what you want, try the "Whois" specialist search engine
at:

www.internic.net/wp/whois.html

This finds listed Internet domain owners and contacts. You
receive a list of appropriate Internet connection addresses, such
as www.microsoft.com if you asked for Microsoft or Bill Gates. 

Similarly, www.hoover.com can obtain company information, share
values for a requested company, etc.

www.companies.online.com obtains information on lists of
companies.

6.5. Finding People

There are two types of people searches: those to find e-mail and
Website addresses and those to find their phone numbers and
street addresses. Phone books and newsgroups are used to compile
this information, so it can be hit and miss. 

The Yahoo! people search is on:

www.yahoo.com/search/people 

Another people and addresses search engine is:

www.four11.com 

Where you can find out not only phone numbers, home addresses and
e-mail addresses but also details about people on their database,
such as public records on them, their criminal record, etc.

There is also www.bigfoot.com, which provides a way to search for
people but also gives permanent free e-mail addresses and sends
e-mail from your Bigfoot address to your e-mail account. 

6.6. Finding News and Public records

To search for online news postings go to www.deja.com. 

Altavista and Yahoo! also let you search for news articles from
the last few months.

Interesting FAQs are also posted at: "News.Answers",
"Comp.Answers" and "ALT.Answers" on newsgroups. You could also
search for these using a Web search engine such as Google.

To use a multiple public records search engine to find US public
records with thousands of databases, try:

www.searchsystems.net

For more search avenues, read a FAQ at:

For more search avenues, read a FAQ at:

www.cs.queensu.ca

6.7. The Outlook Express Quick People Search Facility

Outlook Express has a quick people search facility which you can
invoke by pressing CONTROL E. The dialogue which comes up
contains fields for typing in either of someone's (or a group's)
name, e-mail address, home address, phone number or "other" for
any other known key words which might help. to use this, with
Outlook Express running: 

1. Press CONTROL E and TAB through the various elements to have
a look around. 

2. Note the "Look In" list, which starts with your Outlook
Express Address book to find anyone there. After typing a
contact's name or e-mail address, etc, you TAB to "Find Now" and
press ENTER or just press ALT F. When found, you can then observe
any details you have on this contact by pressing ENTER on the
name.

3. If you change the search area from the Address Book by
ARROWING down to one of the Web people search options, such as
the Yahoo! People Search, Bigfoot Internet Directory Service, the
Infospace Business Directory Service, etc, The "Address" and
"Phone" fields disappear and a "Website" field is created, so
that if you press ENTER on this you will be taken onto this
service's Website.

4. Highlighting one of the people search facilities underneath
the Address Book in "Look In", e.g. WhoWhere Internet Directory
Service, and then pressing ALT F will take you onto the Internet
and try to find this person or group using the details you have
provided. For instance, in the "Address" field you can type in
any home or business whereabouts, including address, street,
city, state, zip code or country. Note that this is primarily US
orientated. Similarly, in the "Phone" field you could enter the
landline phone number of someone, their Fax number or mobile
phone number to try to obtain more information on a person or
group.

Tip: You can use a search engine to find out how many Websites
on the Net have links to a particular site. To achieve this, type
the word"link:" in front of the URL you are looking for into the
search field of a search engine such as Google or Altavista. For
example:

link:http://web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard 

or

link:http://whitestick.co.ukg

                           ********

                           >SECTION 7

                      E-MAILING OVERVIEW

E-mailing is the process of sending letters/messages, text or
voice files, video clips or computer programs electronically via
a MODEM and phone line.

7.1. E-Mail Address Components

E-mail is the short form of saying electronic mail.

An e-mail address (the Internet's equivalent of a house address)
has two parts separated by an at sign (@). The first part is
personal and can sometimes be chosen by yourself or may have to
be comprised of all or part of your name, e.g. johnw, and
the second part is usually the name of your Internet provider,
e.g. onetel.com, cwcom.net or aol.com. So an e-mail address would
look something like:

 johnw@cwcom.net

or

john.wilson11@onetel.com

The personal part of the address is your mailbox name and the
onetel.com or cwcom.net part is your domain provider's name which
holds that mailbox. 

Domain names tend to end in a suffix which has a meaning, such
as:

.fr     for France

.uk     for United Kingdom

.com     for company

.gov     for Government

.mil     for military

.int     for international

.net     for network organisation

.edu     for educational organisation

.org     for non-profit-making organisation

.co.uk     for United Kingdom company

.ws     For world site

.biz     For Business sites

.pro     For sites for professionals

.info    For information sites

.name     For personal domain users

.au     for European Union companies, organisations and private 
        individuals

So, for example, if you see an e-mail address such as:

john.wilson@rnib.org.uk

you can determine from this that the person who will receive the
message is called "John wilson" (if I worked there), the domain
name is "RNIB" (this particular domain name is the RNIBs own
personal domain rather than them using someone else's such as
Freeserve), the "org" element depicts a non-profit-making
organisation and, lastly, the "uk" suffix indicates that the
message receiver is based in the United Kingdom. 

If you forget your e-mail address you can send yourself an e-mail
using your login name or number and then examine the returned e-
mail.

The e-mail process works by you sending an e-mail to a central
computer "server" which holds the mail and then passes it onto
the recipient's PC when he runs his e-mail program. When someone
sends you an e-mail the server holds the mail in your mailbox
until you go online and either automatically or manually issue
a command to download the mail to your PC. There are maximum
amounts of space you are allotted on your provider's server for
such as e-mail, e.g. my old ISP, which was Cable and Wireless
(now taken over by NTL), allowed me to have up to five e-mail
addresses, up to 20 Mb of space to
create my own Website in and up to 10 Mb of their server's disk
space to store my received e-mails in (my mailbox) before it is
full and can take no more mail until I download some. If your
mailbox becomes full, you should receive a message from your ISP
informing you of this when you next go on line. Similarly, if
someone elses's mail box is full and you have sent them an e-
mail, you should receive a message advising you of this so that
you can try to send your message again later when there may be
room in the recipient's mailbox to accept it.

Examples of free computer-based Windows e-mail programs you may
wish to use are:

Pegasus--Which is a standalone e-mail program.

Outlook Express--which comes with Internet Explorer.

Netscape Communicator--with its e-mail capabilities.  

Eudora--Another stand-alone e-mail client.

7.2. Web-Based E-Mail Providers

There are alternatives to e-mail software on your PC for e-
mailing. These reside on the Net and examples are Hotmail, Yahoo!
Mail, Lycos Mail and Google Mail. 

You can download from such a Web-based e-mail provider into some
on-Pc e-mail clients, such as MS Outlook.

You can also access your messages on these Web-based e-mail
clients whilst you are out of the country, which might not be so
easy if you use your on-PC e-mail client, because of
unconntactable 0845, etc, phone numbers which are frequently used
with ISP-based and on-PC e-mail servers and clients. 

For example, to sign up for the Microsoft Hotmail e-mail service
with Outlook Express:

1. With Outlook express running, press ALT T (for Tools) and then
E (for New Account Signup) with Windows 95 or A (for Accounts)
with Windows 98.

2. In Windows 95 The "Hotmail" option will appear, so press
ENTER. In Windows 98 and later the process is different, so see
the earlier section entitled "Setting up an Hotmail or other
Account" above. 

3. In Windows 95, if you are not already online, you will be
taken on line with your Web browser to the Hotmail sign-up page
where you provide and are supplied with all of the necessary
details to create the new account.  

7.3. 1-Step--Voice E-Mail

"1-Step" is a blind-friendly program which permits you to send
your e-mail messages audibly instead of in text. You will require
a sound card and microphone and the recipient will also need a
copy of the 1-step software. Your message is e-mailed in yore own
voice for the receiver to hear. You can also use the 1-Step
program to insert audio into a Website, perhaps to provide a
description of a picture on a site. You can download a demo copy
of the 1-Step software from:

www.audio-tips.com

                           ********

                           >SECTION 8

                E-MAILING WITH OUTLOOK EXPRESS
                   VERSIONS 5.0, 5.5 AND 6.0

This free e-mail facility comes with Internet Explorer, part
of Windows 95 and Windows 98. It can be used as your e-mail
reader and also as your Usenet newsgroups reader. 

If your version of Windows 95 still has the older e-mail program
called "Internet Mail", you can update this by downloading
an up-to-date version of Internet Explorer and Outlook Express
from the Microsoft website at:

www.microsoft.com

Whilst this section does not attempt to cover every possible
feature in Outlook Express, it will give enough guidance and
instruction to permit users to confidently perform the majority
of e-mailing requirements competently and efficiently.

Whether you use Internet Explorer 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0, there are few
differences in their contents or how they work. Of note is that
Oe6 features extra encryption and security features and these
have been mentioned in part 6 of the sub-section entitled
"Outlook Express E-Mailing Options and Customisation for Visually
Impaired People" below.

8.1. Pen-Picture of the Outlook Express Screen 

Outlook Express uses the same default screen set-up for both e-
mail reading and for newsgroups reading. It opens with four
windows. The window at the left uppermost (taking up about a
quarter of the width of the screen and extending to your contacts
Address Book Window at the very bottom) contains the Folders
Window with a list of such items as the Local Folders, Inbox,
Sent Items, etc, plus at the bottom your newsgroups. The second
window (at the bottom left) is the Contacts Window which holds
the Contacts Address Book where you can place and retrieve
regularly used e-mail addresses. The third pane is the largest
and is the Message (or Main) Window which is at the top of the
screen, under the Toolbar, and covers the whole of the rest of
the right-hand side of the screen to about two-thirds of the way
down. It holds the list of message headers in the current
newsgroup or the list of e-mail subject lines. The fourth window
is the Preview Window (or View Message Window) covering the rest
of the screen underneath the Message Window and is where the
textual contents of any e-mail or newsgroup article is displayed.
Pressing the TAB key circulates you through these four windows
and, after stopping on any of them, pressing the ARROW up and
down keys reads the individual newsgroups, folders or article
titles/headers. You then press ENTER to open up the full text of
the e-mail or newsgroup article and the ESC key to close it and
go back to the Message Window. When you are on a folder, such as
the "Sent Items" folder, you can move to the list of messages in
that folder by pressing TAB and then you can ARROW through them.
To return to the list of folders, press SHIFT TAB.

Alternatively, to go directly to your "Local Folders" list, press
CONTROL Y, press ENTER and ARROW up and down. After pressing
CONTROL Y you are also able to create a new subfolder in the
Local Folders folder by pressing TAB to the "New Folder" button,
pressing ENTER and typing in the editfield the foldername you
would like, e.g. "Saved Items", then
TAB once and press ENTER on OK. If, when you first press CONTROL
Y, you do not press ENTER but rather immediately start ARROWING
down, you will hear your list of subfolders in your Local Folders
list and then move onto your list of newsgroup server main
folders. To open a list of the subscribed newsgroups on any news
server folder, press ENTER and the newsgroups will open up to
ARROW through.

An alternative way to open up the "New Folders" dialogue box from
that mentioned in the above paragraph is by pressing CONTROL
SHIFT E.

When looking at the subject lines in e-mail and newsgroup
headers, you may find most of them to be truncated. If you want
to hear more of the subjects or headers, you should maximise the
window in the normal way by pressing ALT SPACEBAR followed by the
letter X. However, if this does not permanently maximise Outlook
Express for you, you can get things maximised permanently by:

1. Press Windows Key, then P (for Programs) and then O until you
get to "Outlook Express".

2. Then press SHIFT F10 to open a Context Menu and then R (for
Properties).

3. You should now be in the "Shortcut" property sheet (press
CONTROL TAB to get there if you are not already there). In this
Shortcut sheet press TAB several times to move through the
various lists and editfields you can now make changes in to how
Outlook Express behaves. In the "Run" list ARROW from whatever
you are currently on to "Maximised".

4. Lastly, TAB to "OK" and press ENTER to finish.

Note: In the above Shortcut property sheet you can also define
a shortcut key combination which you can thereafter press to
launch Outlook Express instead of opening it in any other way,
e.g. in the "Hot Key" field you could hold down such as the ALT
and CONTROL keys and then press the O key to make ALT CONTROL O
the quick hot key shortcut for running Outlook Express in future.

You may also wish to reduce the number of windows which display
on the Outlook Express screen by closing one or both of the
Contacts Address Book or Preview Windows. You will then only have
to TAB through two or three windows rather than four, if you
prefer this. To close these windows, press ALT V, L, and uncheck
"contacts" and/or "Use the Preview Pane to quickly View a Message
without Opening a Separate Window". In this same dialogue box you
can turn off other menus and toolbars if you wish to obtain more
screen space and less clutter. Experiment to find out what
configuration suits you.

To have a good look around Outlook Express without being online
and running up a phone bill, you should TAB from the "connect"
button, which you will normally land on when you start Outlook
Express, to the "Work offline" button and press ENTER. You may
then have to press the ESCAPE key once or twice. Additionally,
any time you are online and want to disconnect your phone line,
you can press ALT F, and arrow up to "Work Offline" and press
ENTER.

8.2. Outlook Express E-Mailing Options and Customisation for
Visually Impaired People

To work optimally with speech and assist others who receive your
e-mails, the following option settings are recommended:

Tools, Options Configurations

1. Launch Outlook Express from the icon on your Desktop by
pressing Windows Logo Key M (or Windows Logo key D) and then O
until Outlook Express is found and then press ENTER.  Now enter
the Tools, Options set of Property Sheets by pressing ALT T, O
and you will be in a multi-page dialogue box. You can move from
one property sheet to the next by pressing CONTROL TAB and
pressing SHIFT CONTROL TAB moves you backwards.

2. The "General" property sheet--Some users may prefer the more
predictable "Go Directly to My Inbox Folder" option to be checked
to start all sessions from this point. However, if you check
this, it will bypass the initial links which you have available
to TAB through when this is not checked. The "play Sounds" option
should be checked if you would like an audible beep when e-mails
have successfully finished downloading, but note that if there
are no messages to download, you will get no finished downloading
beep. You may also want the "Send and Receive Messages at Start
Up" option checking so that you do not have to manually do this--
this does not mean that you are compelled to go straight online
as soon as you load Outlook Express, although you can if you wish
to. Then hold down CONTROL and press TAB until you reach the
"Send" sheet. 

3. The "Send" Property Sheet--Ensure that "Save Copy of Sent
Messages in the Saved Items Folder" is checked. The "Send
Messages Immediately" option should be unchecked, so that you can
determine yourself when to send a message or block of messages.
Then TAB down to "Automatically Complete E-Mail Addresses" and
uncheck this to avoid the potentially confusing situation where
Outlook Express does things you may not expect or want (but some
users like this facility, so experiment with both checked and
unchecked). Then Tab to "Reply to Messages using the Format in
which they were Send" and uncheck this. Tab on to The "Plain
Text" button and check this. Tab forward again to the next "Plain
Text" button and also check this. Now TAB to "Plain Text
Settings" and press ENTER, when you can then TAB down to
"Automatically Wrap Text At" and type in a figure such as 60 to
replace the current figure, as this will help anyone receiving
your e-mail be able to read it in their word-processor because
the lines will not be too long and will therefore not be uneven.
Then press ENTER on "OK" and press CONTROL TAB to the
"Signatures" Property Sheet.

4. In the "Signatures" property sheet--If you invariably use the
same complimentary close and want to avoid having to type this
at the end of all of your messages, Tab to the "New" button and
press ENTER. In the editfield which appears, you just type the
close and signature you want for all your messages, e.g. type
"Yours truly," (press ENTER) "John Wilson", and then TAB to "OK"
and press ENTER. Then TAB to "Add Signatures to All Outgoing
Messages" and check this. You can also elect to have this
signature appended to your replies and forwarded messages, if you
like. Then press CONTROL TAB to the "connection" sheet.

5. In the "Connections" sheet--If you do not want to go offline
automatically after sending and receiving mail, uncheck the "Hang
Up After Sending and Receiving" line. You may want to do some
general Net surfing before cutting off. You can always go offline
manually, if you prefer, with ALT F, W, press ENTER and then Y.
It is cheaper to have this checked if you only want to upload and
download email using a pay-as-you-go ISP connection but if you
immediately want to do some Web surfing it will be
more economical not to have to reconnect again--make your own
mind up on this, depending upon how you intend to plan your
e-mailing/Net surfing escapades and the costs of your ISP/phone
providers connection charges, if any. If you have a broadband
connection which you leave open all of the time because you pay
for continuous connection monthly, you will not wish to be
disconnected every time you complete an e-mail downloading
session. Then press CONTROL TAB until you reach the "Security"
sheet. 

6. In the "Security" sheet--In Internet Explorer 6, you will find
two options which may be of interest to you. If you have the
"Warn Me when Other Applications Try to Send Mail as Me" checked
on, then if you have contracted an e-mail virus which then tries
to spread itself to others via the contacts in your Address Book,
you will be warned so that you can prevent this and be advised
that you have this type of virus. You can then take action to
remove it with your virus-checker. The "Do Not Allow Attachments
to be Saved or Opened that Could Potentially be a Virus" option
does just what it says, it prevents attachments from being opened
or saved. This is something you may wish to do to feel save from
e-mail viruses but will, obviously, deprive you of those
attachments, thus a better alternative to checking this option
on would be to ensure that you have a good, up-to-date virus-
checker which has its ability to check incoming e-mail for
viruses and clean them for you switched on.  
 
7.  There are many more configurable options in these sheets, so
CONTROL TAB through them all and TAB through each sheet and
experiment with the many on/off and checked/unchecked
alternatives when you become more confident with what you are
doing. Most people have their own ideas of what is an optimal set
up and there is no one best configuration for all.

8. To save all of the above changes simultaneously, TAB to "OK"
in any of the property sheets and press ENTER. You can also press
ENTER on any of the "Apply" buttons if you want to save changes
property sheet by property sheet.

View, Columns Configurations

Because the subject lines in some of your e-mails may be too long
to get all of it on screen, you may wish to increase the
available subject line space. You can do this by:

1. With Outlook Express running, press ALT V (for View) and then
C (for Columns).

2. ARROW down to "Subject".

3. TAB to "The Selected Column Should Be" (or it may just read
"Pixels Wide") and BACKSPACE the figure out which is in there and
replace it with a larger figure, such as 350.

5. TAB to "OK" and press ENTER.

Note: If your screenreader reads out not only the subject of an
e-mail as you ARROW down your Inbox but also the word "received"
followed by the date a given message was received and you would
like to exclude the received date to be able to hear the subject
with less interference rom other unnecessary information, in the
above View, Columns dialogue, you can ARROW to the "Received"
option and then TAB to and press ENTER on "Hide" followed by
ENTER on Reset" to finish.

8.3. Composing and Sending E-Mail

To write and send e-mail:

1. Go to the Outlook Express icon on your Desktop and press
ENTER, or run it by pressing the Windows LOGO key, P for
programs, O for outlook Express and when you reach it (you may
have to press O several times, press ENTER.  The program will
start up and you should land in a list of messages in the current
folder, e.g. your Inbox. If you instead land in such as your
Contacts list, just TAB two or so times until you reach your
Inbox if you like but this is not essential. 

2. To create a message press CONTROL n, when the new message
window will open and you will fall on the first of four text
entry boxes. The first is labelled "To:" and this is where you
enter the recipient's e-mail address, e.g argos@freeserve.co.uk.
You can press ENTER and type in more recipients' addresses
separated by semi-colons if you want to send several copies to
different people. You then press the TAB key to the next editbox.
All recipients will be able to view the list of people you sent
this same message to.

3. The next editbox is entitled "CC:" and is where you would type
other people's e-mail addresses if you wanted them to receive the
equivalent of carbon copies of the message. You then press TAB
again.

4. You should now be at the "Subject" editbox, so type in an
appropriate message title or subject and press TAB again. 

5. You will now have moved from the e-mail header area to the
fourth editbox, which is the main editfield where you type in the
body of your letter or message in the normal way.

6. After completing the typing you can spell-check it by pressing
F7 but this only works if you have a copy of Microsoft Word or
Works on your computer as Outlook Express shares the Word/Works
spell-checker.
If you do not have a copy of Word, you can download  
spell-checkers from the Web for this purpose from sites such as
www.tucows.com. 

7. to send the message press ALT S, when it will either: 

A. Be sent straightaway if you are already online; or 

B. If you are working offline, just press ENTER, when the message
will be placed in your "Outbox" folder ready to be sent when you
are ready to go online. 

8. If you were offline as in B above, to complete the sending
process, press CONTROL M and your
message or several messages will be on their way and any e-mails
in your server's mailbox will simultaneously be pulled down to
your e-mail client's inbox. If you
were not already connected to the Internet, you may get a
message asking if you want to connect and go online, so press
ENTER on yes. 

9. If you have finished with your Internet connection and want
to go offline and close Outlook Express down, you should press
ALT F (for File) and then X (for Exit) or use the shortcut of ALT
F4. If you still have any unsent messages in your Outbox, you
will be prompted to either send them immediately or go offline
without sending them. You should press "Y" to send them first or
"N" to go offline without sending them. Note that your
screenreader may sometimes loose focus on this latter Yes or No
dialogue box, so you may have to press ALT TAB to get focus back
before pressing "Y" or "N".

10. If, on the other hand, you decide that you want to keep using
Outlook Express but do not want to remain online incurring phone
charges, you can do this by simply pressing ALT F (for File) and
then W (for Work Offline", when your phone line will be
disconnected for you.

Note 1: You can invoke another header editfield known as "BCC:",
which will appear between the "CC:" and "Subject:" fields by
pressing CONTROL N, THEN alt V, a. This is the blind carbon copy
field which some people like to use. The difference
between sending a copy in this BCC way and in the CC way is that
a copy sent in this box is "secret", i.e. the other recipients
of your e-mail do not know that a copy was sent to the BCC
recipient--very inclandestine! You can also use the hot key of
ALT B to turn the BCC field on and off when in the message
header.

Note 2: There may be other fields in the header of an e-mail you
send or receive, such as "From", "Date" and "Time" but these are
automatically completed for you by Outlook Express itself from
information it holds on you and from the computer's system clock.
If you have two or more e-mail addresses, you can ARROW up or
down the "From:" header to put focus on the address you wish to
use to send your mail. 

Note 3: Remember to Maximise the screen (with ALT SPACEBAR AND
X) straight after pressing CONTROL N to open a message for
composing if it is not already maximised. Thereafter, it should
remain maximised each subsequent time you open a new message
window but there are instances when the maximised state of the
new message window fails to hold. If this happens to you, which
will mean that you cannot easily read what you have typed in the
message body area after about 10 lines have been typed, remember
to maximise each time.

Note 4: Be aware that, as e-mail over the Internet is not secure,
you should not include information such as your credit card
details, bank account information, etc, as it could be
intercepted by fraudulent persons. This is in contrast to using
"padlocked" Internet shopping sites, where your information is
protected by heavy encryption and therefore more secure than
using your credit card in a shop or restaurant, provided that you
only use secure shopping sites, of course. (This is explained in
more depth in Volume 2 of this manual.) 

Tip 1: If you want to hide your own e-mail address from being
viewed by a recipient, you can do this by sending the mail to
yourself and putting the recipient's address or e-mail list's
address in the BCC field.

Tip 2: A quick way to open Outlook Express and send a message and
then have it automatically close again is to use the Run dialogue
by pressing Windows key R, then typing into the editfield you
will now be in the e-mail address of the recipient preceded by
the word "mailto:", e.g. "mailto:jwjw@onetel.com" (no quotes).
You then press ENTER and Outlook Express will open, let you
complete the rest of the e-mail headers and message body and then
send it as usual by pressing ALT S--and you have finished! You
may also find that this approach works if you also have an
Internet telephony program set up on your PC like MSN Messenger
or Skype by typing such as "callto:jwjw@onetel.com" into the Run
dialogue.

8.4. Sending or Forwarding Multiple E-Mails Simultaneously

If you wish to mass-mail many people simultaneously, you can do
this without having to send them individual messages or even type
a long list of addresses into the "To:" field as mentioned above.
What you can do is:

1. Either:

A. To send an original message, press CONTROL N to open a new
message window. 
or
B. To forward a message, with the message open on screen, press
CONTROL F. 

2. Then press ALT T (for Tools) followed by R (for Select
Recipients). 

3. In the dialogue which opens up, TAB three times to the
"Address List" field, where you will be in your standard Address
Book. You may find yourself at the bottom or top of the contacts
list.

4. ARROW down or up the contact name entries in the above list
and select any number you wish to send the same message to. For
example, if you had ten names beginning with the letter A, just
hold the SHIFT key down and ARROW down ten times to highlight
them all. Alternatively, if you wanted to e-mail everyone in your
Address Book, with the cursor at the top of the list, press
CONTROL SHIFT down ARROW. If you just want to send the message
to, say, four people spread around your Address Book, go to the
first recipient, highlight it by pressing CONTROL SPACEBAR and
then, with the CONTROL key still pressed, move to the next
Address Book entry and press SPACEBAR again, etc, until all four
are highlighted. If you wanted to select large blocks of entries,
hold the SHIFT key down and press the PAGE down key several
times.

5.A. Now press TAB three times to the "To:" button and press
ENTER on it. Note, though, that with this option everyone you
have highlighted to receive your message will know who else has
also received it. All of the recipients' names will appear in the
"To:" field. 

5.B. If you do not want the other recipients of your message to
know who else has received it, you should TAB on past the "To:"
button to the "BCC:" button, press ENTER on that, and then
continue as below.

6. You can now press TAB once to view the full list of Address
Book entries you have selected for mailing.

7. You may have only selected/highlighted the precise entries you
wish to send a message to or you may have highlighted your hole
Address Book. If the latter and you find that you now do not want
a few of the selections, you can ARROW to them in this list and
just press DELETE on them to remove the unwanted entries.
Sometimes this latter method is faster than individually
selecting Address Book entries if you want to mail most of the
people in the Address Book.

8. Lastly, TAB forward to "OK" and press ENTER.

9. Now that the recipients are selected you should be able to
view them in your e-mail header "To:" or "BCC" field but you may
have to use mouse mode to do this.

10. You can now simply tAB to the "Subject" and then the message
body and complete the rest of your message as normal and send it,
as described from 3. onwards in the previous subsection. 

Note 1: You can also, at step 4 above, if you prefer, get
individual contacts in the contacts list inserted into your
"To:", "CC:" or "BCC:" lists by pressing either ALT T, ALT C or
ALT B respectively when the contact's name has focus.

Note 2: When I try to send more than 100 e-mails in this way my
server fails to co-operate and tells me that I am trying to e-
mail to too many recipients. This may vary depending on the
ISP/e-mail provider, so you will have to experiment with yours.
You may have to settle for mass mailing in blocks of, say, 50 at
a time.

Note 3: If just one of your e-mail addresses is not typed in your
Address Book in the correct format, all of the messages in the
block you are sending will bounce and fail to be delivered. You
will have to correct or erase the offending Address Book e-mail
address and re-send the block. This does not happen if one of the
recipient's address is simply not found or now obsolete.

8.5. Undelivered E-Mail

If your e-mail is undelivered for some reason, most commonly
because you have typed in the wrong e-mail address, the next time
you go online it will be returned to you together with your other
e-mails from the server mail box. It will have been returned by
the "Postmaster" on your server and will indicate the reason for
non-delivery. This could include the reason that the recipient's
mailbox is full, so you will have to send the message again
later.

8.6. Receiving and Reading E-Mail

To receive your e-mails:

1. Launch Outlook Express (as above).

2. Press CONTROL M, when all of your messages will be downloaded
from the server and placed in your Inbox. Simultaneously, the e-
mail in your Outbox will also be sent. 

3. Press CONTROL I to go to the inbox, if you are not already
there, when you will normally fall on the last message in the
box if it was empty. If you do not come into your Inbox in this
way, you may have to press the TAB key twice to get there. You
will be able to ARROW up and down the messages and press ENTER
on any one of them to open it and read it.  If you want to
read your messages in the order that they are deposited in your
Inbox, provided that you have not changed the default way that
Outlook Express lists messages, you should press CONTROL HOME to
go to the top of the list and then view the messages by ARROWING
down them. Every time you have read a message and then deleted
it, the next message will move up the list to where the deleted
message was. 

4. You can read the body of the message by PAGing and ARROWING
up and down in the message as normal and you can cut and paste
to and from it. You can TAB forward or SHIFT TAB backward through
the headings and message body and your screenreader may also
feature hot keys to read certain parts of the message to you
automatically, e.g. HAL 5 will read the author's name, subject
line and message date for you if you press SHIFT NumPad 8. With
Window-Eyes you will have to leave MSAA mode by pressing CONTROL
SHIFT A before you can TAB through the message headers. Later
versions of Window-Eyes also feature hot keys to read given
header details to you as well, for instance, press F5 to hear
author information including such as who sent you the currently
open e-mail, the date, subject line, etc, and press F6 to open
the attachments list and hear any attachment titles if you have
any in the open message.  

5. When you have finished with the message, press the ESC key to
close the message window and return you to the inbox message
list.

You can delete, reply to, forward or print a message. 

Note 1: Depending on the screenreader you are using, whilst your
messages are downloading in step 2 above, you should be able to
TAB or down ARROW through a number of options, e.g. there will
be a "Stop" button to disconnect the download part way through
and a "Hang up after sending and receiving" button to check (by
pressing SPACEBAR on it) if you would like to be taken offline
as soon as the messages have finished downloading.  

Note 2:Should you not wish to simultaneously upload and download
your messages by using CONTROL M, you can elect to either just
upload or download if you wish. Do this by pressing ALT T (for
Tools), then press ENTER on "Send and Receive", followed by
either pressing ENTER on "Receive All" or "Send All" to just
receive or just send respectively.

Note 3: If you have a lot of messages to download or upload or
one of your messages has a large attachment on it which might
take a long time to download, you can open and read any already
downloaded messages whilst the rest of the messages are uploading
or downloading without doing anything detrimental to the
procedure. However, experiment with this because doing this may
not be stable with all screenreaders and system set-ups.

Note 4: If, for any reason, you are cut off part way through a
download of messages, you are likely to find that when you next
go online to download your mail, you will receive both your new
messages and duplicate copies of the messages you already
downloaded but which were cut off. This is because, when you do
a successful complete message download, at the end of the
download, your mail client then deletes the downloaded messages
from your server's mailbox, which fails to happen if you are cut
off part way through a download.

8.7. Finding an E-Mail Message

Remember that messages in your Inbox will be kept in alphabetical
order by default, so you can ARROW or PAGE down (or up) through
these to find one. 

If you have many messages in your Inbox and want to go straight
to one of these, provided you know some basic information, such
as who sent it, some of the title, some key words in its message
body, etc, you can use the CONTROL SHIFT F shortcut:

1. With Outlook Express running and your Inbox open, press
ALT E (for Edit) and then F (for Find), followed by pressing
ENTER and the find dialogue box will open. If you are using JAWS,
you can acheive this by just pressing CONTROL SHIFT F.

2. The focus should fall on your "Inbox" where your messages are
downloaded to.

3. TAB forward to the "From" editfield and if you know who has
sent you a message, type in their name and press the ENTER key.
If this person is in the Inbox, you will be taken straight to
that e-mail and pressing ENTER again will open it for reading.

4. Alternatively, if you do not know a name, you could TAB to the
"Subject" editfield and type the whole subject line in here, if
you know it, or just one of the keywords of the subject in to
have an e-mail or number of likely e-mails found. You
can also, if all you know is some of the likely key words in the
message field, TAB to the "Message" editfield and type these in
and press ENTER, e.g. if only one of your messages is to do with
quantum mechanics, type in the word "Quantum". If more than one
of your messages contains the word quantum, you will be presented
with a list of all the messages which have this word in them to
ARROW up and down and press ENTER on to open them in turn.

5. There are ways of further refining a search, such as advising
when a message was received before or after and you can, for
instance, check the "Message Has Attachment" box if you know this
was the case. Therefore, a message with a given word in the
"Subject:" line plus having an attachment with it would be found
and no messages would be found which do not meet both of these
criteria.

6. You can do the same in the other folders which are in your
Outlook Express folders list by TABBING to the "Browse" button,
pressing ENTER and then ARROWING up and down through "Inbox",
"Outbox", "Sent Items", etc. 

7. When you have the focus on the folder which contains the e-
mail you want to find, e.g. your "Deleted Items" folder, Press
TAB once to OK and then press ENTER. You will return to the
"Browse" button, so TAB forward to the "From" editfield and type
in the name of the person who sent you the e-mail, then either
TAB forward to "Find" and press ENTER or press ALT I.

8. If you wish to search all folders simultaneously, you should
browse to the "Outlook Express" main folder instead of one of the
sub-folders before carrying out these instructions.

9. The message will be found for you to press ENTER on and open
up for reading. 

10. If you wish to find a particular word or phrase within a
message when it is opened up and on screen, you can either use
the CONTROL SHIFT F shortcut or just press F3. You then type the
word to search for in the editfield which you drop in and press
ALT F to commence the search. Use "Find Next" to find a
subsequent occurrence of the same word or phrase (you may have
to use your navigation/mouse mode to read the result of the find
operation).

Note 1: You can use the above method to find all of the messages
from a given person or with a particular word or words in the
subject line in order to bulk delete them if you do not wish to
read multiple messages from someone or on a particular topic
thread, e.g. press ALT E, F, press ENTER, then press ALT U and
type a word or words which appear in the subject line, press
ENTER and then in the list of messages containing those words in
the subject line just press CONTROL A to highlight them all and
then press DELETE to erase them all, followed by ESCAPE.   

Note 2: Your "Sent Items, "Deleted Items", etc, folders will not
be in alphabetical order and, if they become crowded with
messages you do not want to get rid of, you may wish to have
things placed in alphabetical order for ease of finding by
ARROWING or PAGING through them. To do this Press ALT V (for
View) and B (for Sort By) and press ENTER on "From" and "Sort
Ascending" if they are not already checked. Your messages will
no longer be in date received order but rather in alphabetical
order from A to Z.

8.8. Deleting E-Mail Messages

You can delete messages individually or in category groups.

8.8.1. Deleting Single Messages or Whole Folders of Messages

To delete a message in your Inbox, press CONTROL I, cursor to the
message you want to delete and when it is highlighted (spoken)
press the DEL key.You can do the same with any messages in your
Sent Items, Outbox, Deleted Items, etc, folders by pressing
CONTROL Y and ARROWING to the subfolder first.

To delete the whole contents of a subfolder, e.g. your Saved
Items folder, open the subfolder, go to the bottom of the message
list with CONTROL END and then press CONTROL SHIFT HOME to
highlight all the messages in the folder, followed by pressing
the DEL key and Y to confirm.

You could do the above to also delete the whole contents of your
Deleted Items folder but there is a quicker way to do this. Just
press ALT E (for Edit) followed by Y (for Empty Deleted Items
Folder) and then Y to confirm the action.

8.8.2. Deleting Groups of Messages by Conversation/Subject

You can read and delete whole threads of messages with the same
title in their subject header by working in "Group Message by
Conversation" mode. This can make getting rid of blocks of
unwanted e-mails, such as some topics from e-mail disscussion
lists, quick to achieve. Do this by:

1. Change your view by pressing ALT V, V and then ARROWING up to
"Group Messages by Conversation" and press ENTER.

2. Now, when you have many messages in your Inbox, you will find
that they are all displayed in groups with the same subject, i.e.
the original e-mail query with all of the replies to it
underneath it. You can ARROW up and down the groups of messages
as normal and expand/open up a group or thread of
messages/replies by pressing the right ARROW key if it is not
already expanded and you can then ARROW down the replies.

3. To delete a whole group, with your cursor on the first message
in the group, press your left ARROW key to collapse the group if
it has been expanded and then press the DELETE key. The original
message and all replies to it will simultaneously be deleted and
sent to the Deleted Items folder in the same grouped structure.

4. You are likely to receive a message asking you if you wish to
continue. You can either press ENTER on the "Yes" button to get
rid of them all and do this every time you delete a group of
messages, or you can TAB to a "Don't Ask Me This Again" button
and press SPACEBAR on this to ensure that in future when you
delete groups of messages the unwanted messages are all deleted
without you having to press ENTER on the "Yes" button.

Note: The above example assumes that you have "Automatically
Expand Group Messages" checked on in your Tools, Options, Read
property sheet. On the other hand, if you have this unchecked,
the message replies will not be automatically displayed below the
main message which initiated the group discussion and you will
have to ARROW right to open and then ARROW down to view the reply
message group.

8.9. Viewing Only Specific Mail and News Messages

Your Inbox and Newsgroups folders may sometimes hold so many
messages in them that they become difficult to work with and
read. To narrow down what mail and news messages are shown in
these folders, Outlook Express provides facilities to make it
easier to deal with messages, so that you can quickly find only
the messages you are interested in and have the others excluded
from view. 

for example, with the folder open that you want to make
restrictions in, e.g. the Inbox, if you press ALT V and hit ENTER
on the "Current View" option you can choose to view all messages
by pressing ENTER on "Show All Messages" if it is not already
checked, or you can choose "Hide Read Messages" to display only
the messages which you have not yet opened, or you can press
ENTER on "hide Read or Ignored Messages" to hide messages you
have marked as "ignore" as well as opened/read ones. You can also
arrange Inbox messages by their subjects by selecting "Group
Messages by Conversation".

You can also make the above viewing restrictions in the
newsgroups folder, in addition to some which are only available
when you have your newsgroups folder open. Opening a news message
makes these extra message filters available. Thereafter pressing
ALT V, pressing ENTER on "Current View" and then on "Downloaded
Messages" will display your most recently downloaded messages.
Selecting "Show Replies to My Messages" will display only the
responses you have had to a message you posted on the newsgroup
yourself.

There are also ways of customising current views and defining new
views but you should be careful not to create a view you cannot
thereafter use and thereby get yourself into difficulty. The
screenreaders I have tested with do not, on the whole, do very
well in these dialogue boxes.

8.10. Replying to E-Mail

You are able to reply to the sender/author of an e-mail only, if
you wish, or to all of the people he/she sent that e-mail to if
it was sent to several recipients at the same time.


8.10.1. Replying to the E-mail Sender Only

To reply to an e-mail you have received from someone else, with
the original message on screen, press CONTROL R, when you will
be set up to complete the message editfield with your own return
message. The original message will appear immediately after your
return message, the "To" field will have been
automatically completed for you from the original message and 
the "Subject" editbox will have been completed with the original
message's title preceded by the letters "Re:" meaning reply. 

Remember to check the "To:" editbox to ensure that it is going
to go back to the correct place--the original may have been
forwarded by a third party or from an e-mail list.

It is a good idea to edit out any extraneous header codes, etc,
before returning or forwarding a message.

8.10.2. Replying to all Recipients of an E-Mail

If the above original message was simultaneously sent to you and
several other recipients (i.e. those listed in the "To:" field
of the message), you can send a reply to the author plus all
other recipients by pressing CONTROL SHIFT R and then continuing
as in the last sub-section.

Tip: If you want to know the e-mail address of someone Who's
message you have received via an e-mail list, with the message
open, you can do so by pressing CONTROL F3. You can then ARROW
up to the sender's name and address and you can ARROW through
several other details and properties pertinent to that message
and sender. Close this details list by pressing ALT F4.

8.11. Forwarding E-Mail to Other People

Forwarding is when you pass a message you have received onto
someone else, at the end of a message of your own. To do this:

1. With the original message open on screen that you wish to
forward to someone else, press CONTROL F and complete the "To:"
editbox with the new recipient's e-mail address. The "Subject"
line will automatically be completed with the original message's
subject title preceded by the letters "FW:".

2. Type a line or two into the message body area to advise the
person you are forwarding the message to that this is what you
are doing, e.g.:

"Hello Jim,

Have a look at the message below, which I received from another
friend. I think that it may interest you."

3. Send the message as normal by pressing ALT S and then ENTER.

4. It will be forwarded when you complete the sending process
with CONTROL M.

However, note the following:

Forwarded messages have all lines of the original message you are
forwarding preceded by a greater than (>) sign. This can be
irritating to listen to via a speech synthesiser, so you can
ensure that these > symbols do not get sent with the message by:

1. With Outlook Express running, press ALT T (for Tools) and then
O (for Options.

2. Now CONTROL TAB TO "Send" and TAB to "HTML Settings" or "Plain
Text Settings" (depending on which one you have checked--it
should be the text one). 

3. You can now TAB to "Indent Your Message With" and if it is
checked on (it is by default), press SPACEBAR to uncheck this so
that the > sign does not appear in messages you forward. Note,
however, this will not stop you from receiving such "indents"
from others if they have not set up their options to send in the
same way.

Note: If your original message had an attachment with it, this
attachment will also be forwarded with the forwarded message.


8.12. The Outlook Express Address Book

8.12.1. What is the Address Book and what can you do with it?

The Address Book (also known as the Contacts List) is where you
can save friends' or other regularly used e-mail addresses
(and other details) in order to place focus on one of these and
press ENTER. The selected contact's property sheet with a summary
of their details which you entered about them will then become
available for you to TAB through. You can also CONTROL TAB to
several other property sheets for viewing relevant contact
details, e.g. their Website "Home Page", their "Business Page",
etc. When these properties are open, you can also add further
contact details in the editfields in these property sheets as
well and save them via the OK button. Note that some
screenreaders will not automatically read the contents of these
editfields without you having to use the screenreader's read
current line hot key.  

8.12.2. Quickly Inserting a Contact's E-Mail Address into the
"To" Header if you Cannot Remember It

If you want a quick way to get a contact's e-mail address
automatically entered into the e-mail "To:" editfield when
sending an e-mail, you can just type this person's name in
the "To:" editfield precisely as it appears in the Address Book
after pressing CONTROL N, when the program
will automatically find this person in the Address Book and enter
his/her e-mail address for you.

Normally, any e-mails you reply to will have the recipient's e-
mail address placed in the Address Book automatically, as long
as this feature is switched on in the Tools, Options, Send
dialogue box.

8.12.3. Manually Adding Someone to your Address Book/Contacts
List

If you want to add someone's e-mail address to your Address Book
e-mail "Name" property sheet yourself, you would:

1. Press ALT F (for File).

2. Then N (for New).

3. Now press C
(for Contact).

4. Now TAB through and complete the details you are asked for,
such as the new contact's name, e-mail address, etc, and then TAB
to and press ENTER on "Add". If this person has more than one
e-mail address, you can now immediately
type the next address as you will have been returned to the "E-
Mail Addresses" editfield.

5. You then TAB again to "Add" and press ENTER.

6. If you are regularly e-mail corresponding with visually
impaired people, it is then advisable to TAB to the "Send E-Mail
Using Plain Text Only" button and check this on by pressing the
SPACEBAR before TABBING to the "OK" button to complete the
process by pressing ENTER.  

Note: The above "Name" property sheet is only one of seven in the
Address Book, so you should press CONTROL TAB to move through the
others to see what you can do here. For instance, you can enter
and save details of home, business and personal facts, even
things such as anniversary and birthday dates; you can press
ENTER on the "Go" buttons to be taken onto this contact's home
Web page, if you have entered his/her Web page address (URL) in
the line above "Go", etc. Remember, you can press F1 at any time
to obtain a brief help note of what any of these property sheet
tabs is for.

Yet another way to add someone to your Address Book is (with the
person's message opened on screen): press ALT T, ARROW down to
"Add to Address Book" and then press ENTER, followed by ARROWING
down to "Sender" and again pressing ENTER. You can now complete
any personal details for that contact in the various control tabs
and then TAB to "OK" and press ENTER to finish.   

8.12.4. Moving to the Address Book and Finding an Entry

You can get to the Address Book when Outlook Express first opens
by TABBING forward until its link is spoken and then arrowing up
and down or you can press CONTROL I and then press SHIFT TAB
twice until it is spoken.

When you are in the Address Book, you can jump to an entry by
pressing the first letter of the contact's name you are looking
for, e.g. if you are looking for Colin Smith, press C until his
name is found, then press ENTER to open up the message screen to
send him an e-mail.

If you want to see details of the entries in your Address Book,
such as someone's e-mail address, press CONTROL SHIFT B.

8.12.5. Using the Address Book Find People Feature

There is an Address Book "Find People" shortcut by pressing
CONTROL E. You then type in any details you have, such as name,
e-mail address, etc, and press ENTER on the "Find" button. This
would be useful if your Address Book is lengthy.

Note: You can also use this find feature to find people who may
be listed on such as Yahoo! People Search, Bigfoot Internet
Directory Service, Switchboard Internet Directory Service, etc,
by ARROWING to that particular option in the list of search
services below the Address Book option. 

8.13. E-Mail Address Groups (Distribution Lists)

You can set up e-mail address groups (also known as distribution
lists) of specific people in a
group or club who you always send the same group messages to. You
can then enter the group's name in the "To:" field of your
message header or obtain it from your Address Book/Contacts List,
type your message and send it to all members simultaneously.

To set up a group:

1. Press CONTROL SHIFT B to open up the Address Book.

2. Press CONTROL G to open the group editing dialogue.

3. In the editfield which you fall in, type in the name of the
group/club concerned, e.g. Computer Club. 

4.A. If the members of this club are already in your Address
Book, you should TAB to "Select" and press ENTER. Now TAB to a
list box and ARROW up or down it to put focus on the club member
(or type their name in to find it automatically). When the
member's name is found, press ALT T to store this in your group
list. Continue in this way until all Address Book club members
have been stored.

4.B. If none of the Computer Club members are in your Address
Book already, or only some of them are, you should TAB to "New
Contact" and press ENTER. The standard new contact dialogue comes
up for you to complete contact details as normal. Just keep
pressing ENTER on "New" for each new group entry. 

5. If you wish to record other details about the group, such as
its address, phone number, Website address, etc, you can CONTROL
TAB to a "Group Details" property sheet before completing the
process.

6. After all group members have been stored, TAB to "OK" and
press ENTER to finish.

7. The name of the group will now appear in your Address Book
along with your individual Address Book contacts.

8. To send a copy of an e-mail to all group members
simultaneously, just select the group name from your Address Book
as normal and complete your message and send it.

9. To view the individual entries in a group and make amendments
to any of the recorded details for a group member:

A. Press CONTROL SHIFT B (or use the Tools, Address Book menu
option).

B. Type the group name into the editfield you will now be in from
which you wish to view the member's details of or select it from
the list of contacts after TABBING once and then press ENTER. 

C. TAB once more to "Main Identity's Contacts" and right ARROW
once to open the list, ARROW to the group name in question, TAB
again once or twice and then ARROW through the members in that
group and press ENTER on any one to open up that contact item for
viewing. 

D. You can now CONTROL TAB through several property sheets with
differing details, summaries, etc, depending on what information
you provided for that contact when you originally placed it into
your Address Book.

E. to delete a member from the group, place focus on the member
you wish to have removed from the group, press the DELETE key and
Y to confirm.

Note 1: In the Address Book View Menu, "Folders and Groups" must
be checked to be able to view group e-mail details.

Note 2: When sending a message to a group, if just one of the
recipient's messages bounces at the server, the whole lot will
fail to be sent. In this case, you will have to remove the
offending group member or correct the address and then re-send
them.

8.14. Saving and Moving E-Mail

You can save your mail in a folder full of messages, in a
standard file or print it and file it away. 

When you delete a message from the Outlook Express Inbox, it is
automatically saved in a folder called "Deleted Items", which
appears in the folders list. This is an automatic place to save
your e-mails and you can press the DEL key on any of these to
completely delete it. 

However, you may wish to make a special folder for important
messages to be saved in. Do this (with the focus on the "Local
Folders" folder level) by pressing ALT F, F, N. Then give the new
subfolder a name, e.g. Work Files, TAB to "OK" and press ENTER.

 To copy a message to this new subfolder Go to the message
headers in your Inbox, leave focus on the message you wish to
move elsewhere, press CONTROL SHIFT V, ARROW down the list
of folders to the one you want to move the message to, then TAB
to "OK" and press ENTER.   

To rename a folder, ARROW to it, press F2, type in the new name
and press ENTER.

To delete a folder and send it to the Recycle Bin, ARROW to the
folder, press the DEL key and Y for yes.

You can save a file as a text file with ALT F, A, type in a
filename, TAB to "Save as Type" and ARROW to TXT , then TAB to
"Save" and press ENTER. 

In the File Menu (ALT F), you can also elect to print a message,
delete a message, move to a folder and copy to a folder. 

8.15. Importing and Exporting 

If you have to reinstall Outlook Express onto a computer which
you have already been running it on, you will not have to save
your Address Book, Saved Items, etc, details and messages. They
will be kept for you and made available as usual in your newly
installed program. 

8.15.1. Importing Messages, Address Books and Account Settings 

you may wish to import messages and other details into your
currently installed copy of Outlook Express. You can do this by:

1. To import (copy from another e-mail program to Outlook
Express), press ALT F (for File) and then I (for Import).

2. You will be able to ARROW up and down a list of possible
import options, for instance, Address Book, messages, mail
account settings, news account settings, etc (if the latter two
options are not available in your version of Outlook Express, see
the next sub-section for another method of importing and
exporting account settings). Press ENTER on the one you require.

3. You are then given a list of e-mail programs to import (copy)
from. These include such as Eudora, MS Internet Mail, MS Outlook,
MS Outlook Express 4, Netscape Communicator, and several more.
ARROW to the one you want and then TAB to "Next" and press ENTER.

4. The folder the messages you wish to import from should be
automatically found by Outlook Express but if it is not, perhaps
because you originally chose to save them in other than the
default folder (not recommended), you can use the "Browse" button
to navigate there in the usual Windows way.

5. Then TAB to "Finish" and press ENTER to complete the process. 

8.15.2. Exporting Messages, Address Book Details, Account
Settings and Other Files 

In a similar vein to the procedure explained in the last sub-
section, you can also export Address Book and message details and
files by using ALT F (for File) and then E (for Export) and then
by going through a mirror process as with import but, of course,
you will be copying from your current version of Outlook Express
to another e-mail program or to another copy of Outlook Express. 

If you want to export your Outlook Express e-mail account
settings, such as your POP3, SMTP, dial-up phone numbers, etc,
to save in a file in case of some form of corruption or to
transfer to another copy of Outlook Express, you do this as
follows:

1. Press ALT T (for Tools) and then A (for Accounts).

2. In the "Mail" property sheet (CONTROL TAB to it if you are not
already on it), TAB to and press ENTER on the "export" button.

3. Your account name and/or e-mail address name will be offered
as a filename to save to, e.g. if your account name is "Onetel"
and your e-mail address is "jwjw" then the filename your account
details will be saved to will be called "Onetel jwjw.iaf". Such
files are always given an .iaf extension.

4. Then TAB to "Save" and press ENTER.

5. Lastly, TAB to "Close" and press ENTER to finish. Your e-mail
settings file will have been saved, by default (unless you
changed this) to your My Documents folder with the .iaf
extension. You can now take this account settings file and use
it to import these details into another copy of Outlook Express
elsewhere using the same procedures as just explained but, in
step 2, you choose the "Import" button instead of the "Export"
button.

Note: At stage 2 above, you can also CONTROL TAB to other
property sheets and save different account settings if you like,
such as your newsgroup settings if you use newsgroups.

You can also export some or all of the information fields in your
Address Book to a text file and save this for safe keeping if you
wish. Do this by:

1. Go to your File menu and then press ENTER on "Export".

2. Now press ENTER on the "Address Book" option.

3. Then ARROW to "Text File (Comma Separated Values" and then TAB
to the "Export" button and press ENTER.

4. You come into an editfield to say where you want the TXT file
to be saved, so if you want it on a floppy disk, type in here
"a:\adbook" or whatever you want to call the file and then press
ENTER on "Next".

5. You now come into a pick list of headings corresponding to the
information fields you may have in your Address Book, so if you
want them all to appear in the file, highlight them all with
CONTROL A. Otherwise, just ARROW down to the
one after the last field you want, e.g. if you want the details
down to "E-mail Address" only, ARROW to the line after the email
field and then highlight from there upwards with CONTROL SHIFT
up ARROW.

6. TAB to "Finish" and press ENTER to complete the procedure and
send the file to a floppy disk.

8.15.3. Where Outlook Express Keeps its Data Files and How to
Save them and Move them Elsewhere

Outlook Express saves its data files several folders deep and
gives them .dbx filename extensions.  On my computer they are
found in:

C:\Windows\Application Data\Identities\{90340A80-DF6C-11D6-92F2-
DBC9B1717252}\Microsoft\Outlook Express\

but, of course, the middle part of this path (the part between
braces) will vary from computer to computer and from user to user
if you have more than one user on a computer with different
identities set up. To discover where your .dbx files are kept
exactly, use the Windows Fine feature or the DOS DIR command and
search for *.dbx.

So, for example, your Inbox will have a filename of "inbox.dbx",
your Outbox will be called "outbox.dbx", etc. If you have created
a folder to filter your messages into from a specific e-mail list
called Access-UK, then this will be saved as "access-uk.dbx".

You are likely to have other saved .dbx files in this same sub-
folder as well, such as "pop3uidl.dbx", "offline.dbx" and
"folders.dbx (your Folders list data file).
 
If you download e-mail to one computer and then wish to move the
messages to another computer and read them on that, you can copy
the inbox.dbx file to such as a laptop and work on it on that and
then copy it back to your desktop PC later. You could copy it
using the old DOS Interlink program via a cable connection or the
more modern Laplink or Windows Direct Cable Connection feature,
or you could copy it to a disk and then copy it from the disk to
the other computer. If you use a floppy or recordable disk via
which to transfer the files, they may have their attributes made
read-only (R attribute) and so if this happens you will have to
reset them so that they again become archive (A attribute) files.

The Outlook Express Address Book with its contacts and contact
details is saved in two files called "default.wab" and
"default.wa~" in the path/folder of:

C:\Windows\Application Data\Microsoft\Address Book\

If you copy these Address Book files to either a floppy disk (if
they will fit) or to a CD or elsewhere on your computer, you will
then be able to recover and replace any copy you may have which
might become corrupted and unusable.

8.16. File Attachments   

A file attachment is where you insert a file created in another
program into your e-mail. You may wish to do this instead of
sending a plain text file in the body of your e-mail, for
instance, with a Word or WordPerfect formatted file, so that the
formatting, such as underlining and emboldening, are not lost in
converting the file to text only, as would otherwise happen. 

8.16.1. Attaching a file

To attach a file:

1. With your cursor in the main Outlook Express e-mail message
editfield, press ALT I, press ENTER on "File Attachment", then
type the path to the file you want to send in the e-mail message
editfield which you will fall in, TAB twice to "Attach" and press
ENTER. If you do not know the path to the file, use the "Look In"
button to browse to it in the normal Windows way. 

2. Send the e-mail with the attachment as normal. 

8.16.2. Opening and Saving an Attachment

TO open an attachment or save one to disk prior to opening it:

1. To open an attachment (with the e-mail message open and on
screen as if you were reading it), TAB (or
SHIFT TAB ) to the attachment in the attachments list and press
ENTER. The attachments list is found on your open e-mail between
the Subject line and the message body. Alternatively, navigate
to it in mouse/navigation/jaws mode and press ENTER. Your
screenreader may also have a go to attachments list hot key, e.g.
INSERT A with JAWS and F6 with Window-Eyes. If there is more than
one attachment in an e-mail message, when you are on the first
attachment, you can press the left and right and up and down
ARROW keys to move through the others or press the first letter
of the name of the attachment file and then press ENTER on them
to open each. The multiple attachments are usually stacked up in
a double verticle column but some screenreaders may change this
to a single column.

2. When you open an attachment, you may get a Warning message
about possible viruses in attachments. If you are satisfied that
the source of the attachment is secure and bona fide, press ENTER
to save the attachment to disk for later opening, or ARROW down
to "Open It" to observe the contents of the attachment
immediately in its associated program in such as Windows Notepad,
for example, if it is a text file.

3. To change the default place where your attachments will be
saved, after pressing ENTER on "Save it to Disk, accept the
filename the attachment came with (or change it), then instead
of TABBING to the "Save" button, immediately press SHIFT TAB
twice. You will now be in a list of places to save to, starting
with the Desktop, from where you can ARROW down to the C: drive,
the A: floppy disk drive, etc, and just press ENTER when you
reach where you want to save to. 

4. Lastly, if you did not immediately elect to open the
attachment as mentioned above but instead saved it to disk (which
is recommended), go to the attachment wherever you saved it to
and open it as usual by pressing ENTER on it or launch your word-
processor or text editor and open it from its saved location in
the normal way via the Open dialogue.

Alternatively, you can save an attachment as follows:

If you wish, you can save an attachment via the File Menu rather
than SHIFT TABBING to it and pressing ENTER on it and using the
procedure described above. With the e-mail message open on
screen, you just press ALT F, ARROW to "Save Attachments" and
press ENTER. You can choose which attachment to save in the list
which appears, if there is more than one attachment in your
message, and then TAB to and press ENTER on the "Save" button.
You can also change the default place where attachments save,
e.g. to My Documents if it is not already set up to go there.

Note: It is recommended that, before opening a saved attachment,
you run your virus-checker on it to ensure that it is clean of
such as macro viruses (see Section 1 "Virus-checkers") for where
to obtain a free virus-checker if you do not already have one.

8.17. Inserting Text into an E-Mail Message

If you do not want to actually attach a file to your e-mail
message, you can, instead, with a text only file, simply insert
text at the cursor point in your message body by pressing ALT I,
T (for text from file) and ENTER. All you do now is type in the
path to where your plain text file can be found, e.g. c:\My
Documents\readme.txt, and then TAB to "Open" to get it inserted
into the message body of your open e-mail. You can, of course,
navigate to this text file from the "Look In" tab if you wish
instead of typing the path to it.

8.18. Jump to Links in E-mail 

You can not only use embedded links which others have provided
in e-mail messages for you but also provide these links for
recipients of your messages as well.

8.18.1. Jumping from E-Mail to a Website

Sometimes an e-mail you receive, such as from a company
advertising their Website and products, will have embedded in it
a link to their site. When you fall on this in the body of the
message, you can just press your ENTER key to be taken straight
online with your browser to this Website automatically. 

8.18.2. Inserting Jump to Links into your E-Mail

If you wish to provide a link in an e-mail message you send to
someone else, you can do this with messages in HTML format by
simply taking a new line and typing the Web address (URL) or e-
mail address on that line, when that line will automatically be
seen by the recipient's computer as an e-mail or URL link, e.g.:

jwjw@onetel.com

or

http://web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard

Alternatively, to cover the eventuality that the recipient may
receive their e-mail in plain text format (as recommended for
screenreader users, and ensure that these links will definitely
work, you may have to add a little "mailto:" code before the URL
or e-mail address, e.g.:

mailto:jwjw@onetel.com

or

http://web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard/index.htm

8.19. Sender's E-Mail Address Identification

If you want to see the e-mail address of someone who has mailed
you, with the focus on the message sender/subject line in such
as your Inbox, press SHIFT F10, then press R (for properties) and
then (in your screenreader's mouse mode) ARROW down from the top
until you reach the sender's name and e-mail address line.

8.20. Obtaining a Received Message Verification Receipt

With Outlook Express 5.01 and later versions, you can request a
receipt to verify that a message has been opened on the
recipient's computer, as long as the recipient has his receipts
option turned on to support this. You can do this by pressing ALT
T (for tools) and O (for options), then CONTROL TAB to the
"Receipts" property sheet, when you will be able to check two
check boxes to enable this facility.
 
8.21. Blocking and Unblocking specific E-Mail Messages

If asking a particular company or individual to remove you from
their mailing list has not worked and you are still getting
e-mail or news messages from them, you can stop this in Outlook
Express by:

1. With focus on one of the offending messages, highlight it by
pressing SHIFT END.

2. Then press ALT M (for messages) followed by S (for Block
Sender). 

3. You then receive confirmation that all future messages from
this source will be blocked (will not appear in your Inbox) and
be asked if you would also like to delete any past messages from
this source from your system. Press ENTER for "yes" or TAB to
"No" if you do not wish to do this. In future any messages from
this source will go straight into your Deleted Items folder.
Similarly, if you do this with news messages, such messages will
not be displayed in future. 

4. To unblock a message source so that messages will be displayed
normally again:

A.  Press ALT T (for Tools), followed by R (for Message Rules).

B. Then press S (for Block Senders List). You can then TAB once
in the ensuing dialogue box to a list of blocked senders and
highlight one of them by pressing SHIFT End followed by TABBING
to "Remove" and pressing ENTER, followed by ENTER again to
confirm.

C. You then TAB to "OK" and press ENTER again to finish.

Note 1: Blocking is part of Outlook Express's "Message Rules".
Pressing ALT T, then R takes you into a sub-menu which then
allows you to choose between news and mail messages in order to
filter, automatically delete, copy elsewhere, etc, certain
messages from specified places, people, with attachments, etc,
so that you can have messages dealt with automatically in a way
you personally prefer, e.g. Send all messages with attachments
or from a specified e-mail list to a specific sub-folder.

Note 2: If you are receiving unwanted "spam" advertising, sexual
or fraudulent business proposal messages rather than advertising
from a respectable company, do not under any circumstances reply
to them, as this will only confirm to them that your e-mail
address is live. Just delete such messages or filter/block them
as above or as in message rules below. 

Note 3: Recently (particularly since the beginning of 2004) two
new types of fraudster have come to the fore using e-mailing and
false Websites to trick you into giving them your credit card,
PIN number, etc, details. The first of these is known as
"phishing" and the second is called "spoofing". Phishing is the
practice of luring unsuspecting Internet users to phoney Websites
to obtain information from them, such as PIN and credit card
details, in order to use these fraudulently. Spoofing or IP
spoofing exploits a loophole in Internet Explorer so that a fake
or spoofed site displays an authentic-looking Web address.
Examples of these fraudulent sites which you may receive e-mails
tempting you to go to and type in your financial details are a
fake Barclays bank site, an AOL site, a phoney Paypal site, etc.
No company of this type would ever send you an e-mail asking you
to respond in this manner, so always delete such e-mails or, if
in doubt, phone the company concerned to double-check first. 

8.22. Using Message Rules to Sort and Reply to Messages

Sorting messages with message rules is a way of filtering
messages you receive into the folders you would like them in
according to certain predefined criteria instead of them always
all going into your Inbox or of effecting certain other actions
on them. For instance, you could specify that all messages from
a given person, e-mail list or newsgroup are automatically
deposited in a certain folder, or you could have particular
messages automatically forwarded to on of your Address Book
contacts, or you can arrange for certain messages to be
automatically deleted as soon as they hit your Inbox. You can
even ensure that persons who use the same e-mail account have
their messages downloaded to their own personal folders and you
can send automatic out-of-office replies to messages you receive.
These rules can be applied to both e-mail and newsgroup messages.
for how to achieve this sort of thing, consider the below two e-
mail examples.

8.22.1. Step-by-Step Example 1: Filtering Specific Messages into
a Newly Created E-mail Folder 

To achieve this:

1. Press ALT t (for Tools) and then R (for Message Rules).

2. You can ARROW through choices of "Mail", "News" and "Block
Senders List". So press ENTER on "Mail".

3. A dialogue box opens for you to create a new mail rule. You
will fall in the "Criteria" list which you can ARROW down to
select the conditions you wish the incoming messages to match,
e.g. "Where the From Line Contains People", "Where the Message
Has an Attachment", etc. This is what you do when you create your
first message rule; for subsequent rules you will have to TAB to
"New" and press ENTER on that first. Note also that when you
already have at least one rule defined, you can ARROW down your
list of current rules and you can TAB through buttons to modify
one of the rules, to copy it elsewhere and to remove any of the
rules.

4. For this first example (which uses a real life e-mail list and
will work for you if you are subscribed to the Access-UK list),
ARROW to and put focus on "Where the Subject Line Contains
Specific Words" and press the SPACEBAR to select it. You could
also press SPACEBAR on any number of the other eleven conditions
in this list if you wanted to make the message rule tighter and
even more specific, e.g. you could elect only to filter messages
with a particular word in the "From:" line of your e-mails which
also have an attachment with them.

5. Now TAB to the "Actions" list and select the "Move it to the
Specified Folder" option by pressing the SPACEBAR on it.

6. TAB on once to the "Rule Description" area and ARROW down to
"Move it to the Specified Folder" and press SPACEBAR. You may
also now have to press ENTER as well. It is at this point that
your screenreader may not tell you exactly what is going on, so
check things in navigation/mouse mode if you are unsure.

7. The Outlook Express folders list will open and you can ARROW
to "Local Folders" and then TAB to "New Folder" and press ENTER.

8. You will be asked for a "Folder Name" for the Access-uk" e-
mails to go into, so make one up which is meaningful to you, e.g.
type in "Access UK", TAB to "OK" and press ENTER. You can now TAB
and ARROW to the "Access UK" new sub-folder and leave focus on
this. Then TAB to "OK" and press ENTER.

9. You will return to the "Rule Description" area and should be
able to again ARROW to "Where the Subject Line Contains Specific
Words" and press ENTER to open up an editfield. Then type the
word or words in you want monitored which appear in the subject
line of specific e-mails, e.g. "Access-UK" (no quotes) and TAB
to "Add" and press ENTER. You can keep moving back to the above
words editfield to add more words if you like and each time you
add a word or string of words press ENTER on "Add" again. Then
TAB to "OK" and press ENTER. The reason you may want to specify
"Access-UK" is because this always appears in the subject line
of e-mails sent from the Access UK mailing list. 

10. Now ARROW to "Move it to the Specified (access-uk) Folder"
and then TAB to "OK" and press ENTER to be able to place focus
on the newly created sub-folder you want to have Outlook Express
place these messages in. Focus is likely to already be on this
sub-folder. 

11. Now TAB to the "Name of the Rule" area and note that the new
rule you have just created will be given a name like "New Mail
Rule Number 1". You are in an editfield here and can either
accept this name or type another in of your own preference, so
type in a meaningful rule name of your own.

12. Lastly, TAB to "OK" or "Close" and press ENTER to finish. You
return to the "Mail Rules" property sheet and should then TAB to
"OK" and press ENTER to complete the procedure. 

13. Should you wish to either modify a rule or delete it you can
do this by pressing ALT T, then R, followed by TABBING to the
"Rules List" and placing focus on the rule you wish to modify or
delete, then TAB to either "Modify" or "Remove" and press ENTER. 

Note: Message rules are not the easiest environment to work in,
so if you fail to select/highlight any necessary options or do
not complete the appropriate editfields as outlined above,
Outlook Express will advise you of this and of what to do, so you
can SHIFT TAB backwards and correct your mistakes or omissions.
You could also use the "Modify" button to make changes as
described in step 13 above.

8.22.2. Step-by-Step Example 2: Automatically Replying to E-mail
Messages when Away From Home or the Office

To set up an automatic out-of-office auto-reply:

1. Launch Outlook Express and press CONTROL N to open a new blank
message.

2. TAB to the message body area of the blank message and type in
here the message you want everyone to receive about you not being
available at present, e.g. "I will be out of the office and
unable to reply until after 26 December."

3. Now press ALT F (for File) and then A (for Save As) and save
your message in such as My documents as a .txt file, e.g. under
a name like "johnaway.txt", not forgetting to select "Text Files
(*.TXT)" in the "Save as Type" list. Then leave the message by
pressing the ESCAPE key.

4. Press ALT t (for Tools) and then R (for Message Rules).

5. You can ARROW through choices of "Mail", "News" and "Block
Senders List". So press ENTER on "Mail".

6. A dialogue box opens for you to create a new mail rule. You
will fall in the "Criteria" list which you can ARROW down to
select the conditions you wish the incoming messages to react to,
e.g. "Where the From Line Contains People", "Where the Message
Has an Attachment", etc. This is what you do when you create your
first message rule; for subsequent rules you will have to TAB to
"New" and press ENTER on that first. Note also that when you
already have at least one rule defined, you can ARROW down your
list of current rules and you can TAB through buttons to modify
one of the rules, to copy it elsewhere and to remove any of the
rules.

7. For this second example, in the "Criteria" list, ARROW down
to and put focus on "For all Messages" and press the SPACEBAR to
select it. 

8. Now TAB to the "Actions" list and ARROW down to and select the
"Reply with Message" option by pressing the SPACEBAR on it.

9. TAB on once to the "Rule Description" area and ARROW down to
"Reply with Message" and press SPACEBAR. You may also now have
to press ENTER as well. 

10. In the filename editfield which now opens up, indicate the
place where you saved your johnaway.txt message, e.g. c:\my
documents\johnaway.txt, and then TAB to "Open" and press ENTER.

11. Now TAB to the "Name of the Rule" area and note that the new
rule you have just created will be given a name like "New Mail
Rule Number 1". You are in an editfield here and can either
accept this name or type another in of your own preference, so
type in a meaningful rule name of your own, e.g. johnaway.

12. Lastly, TAB to "OK" or "Close" and press ENTER to finish. You
return to the "Mail Rules" property sheet and should then TAB to
"OK" and press ENTER to complete the procedure. 

Note: The above second (out-of-office auto-reply) example will
only work if your computer is left switched on and Outlook
Express is set to automatically retrieve messages at preset
intervals. Turn this on by:

1. Press ALT T (for Tools) and in the "General" property sheet
TAB to and press SPACEBAR on "check for New Messages Every" to
turn this on.

2. TAB to the editfield which opens up below and type in the
number of minutes interval you want Outlook Express to go online
at and send and receive any messages, e.g. if you only want
messages sending and receiving three times a day (every 8 hours)
type "480" in here. This is the maximum period you can specify.

3. Then TAB once more to the "If my computer is not Connected at
this Time" list and leave focus on either "Connect only when not
working offline" or "Connect even when working offline".

4. Lastly, TAB to "OK" and press ENTER to finish.

Warning: Avoid using Outlook Express's automatic reply ability
if you are on e-mailing lists or you receive a lot of junk or
other spam e-mails, as in the former case you will be sending out
of office replies back to everyone on the list and in the latter
case you will only be confirming to spammers that your e-mail
address is valid and active. 

8.23. Obtaining Website Content by E-Mail 

To save time online sifting through the contents of the pages on
a Website, particularly if it has many links, you can request and
receive an on-screen print-out of a page by e-mailing to:

text@pagegetter.com

Where you would type the name of the URL into the body of the
message, e.g. http://www.microsoft.com. With this you receive a
 plain text copy of the page contents.

or

web@pagegetter.com

Where you type the URL of the page to be retrieved and then
receive the full HTML page, together with any images.

or

webgate@vancouver-webpages.com

Where you would type the URL of the page you want into the
message body, preceded by either the word "get" or "dump", e.g.
get http://microsoft.com.

or

html@pagegetter.com

Where you type the URL of the page to be retrieved and then
receive the full HTML page, together with all links, etc, but no
graphics images.

or

google@capeclear.com

Where you send your query in the Subject line of your e-mail and
only get back the most up-to-date 20 pieces of relevant
information from the Google online e-mail search engine, e.g.
type "from the keyboard tutorials" into the Subject line of the
e-mail and send it, when you should receive information about my
From The Keyboard tutorials as well as several others. Pressing
ENTER on any of the linked URLs in the return e-mail you receive
from Google will open your Web browser and take you to the site
concerned.

When viewing the contents of such downloaded pages in your e-mail
program, if you decide you would like to be taken online to a
particular link, you can simply press ENTER on the appropriate
line in the e-mail message to be taken straight online via your
default Web browser.

A host of techniques for doing anything by electronic mail can
be sought from:

www.expita.com 

For a guide to using many Internet features via e-mail, you can
surf to:

www.faqs.org/faqs/internet-services/access-via-email/

8.24. Using Shorthand Emoticons in Your E-mails

The occasional use of "emoticons" in your e-mails may help to
express your feelingss about a given message or situation when
a text message only might make this difficult to convey.
Emoticons are also known as "smileys" and are a type of acronym
or shorthand. For example, a symbol combination such as :-]
represents a smiley which signifies that you are happy with or
agree with a particular statement or emotion. It generates a
graphical picture of a smiley face on the recipient's screen.
There are other symbols signifying displeasure, a nod and a wink,
etc.

However, most visually impaired people tend to replace these
symbol combinations and visually smiling or frowning faces with
a word between brackets or arrows which conveys a feeling or
emotion, such as <smile>, <grin>, <frown>, <wink>, etc.

The below list gives an idea of the range of available emoticons
and their most common meanings but is not necessarily fully
exhaustive:

AAMOF     As a matter of fact.

BBFN     Byebye for now.

BFN     Bye for now.

BRb     Be right back.

BTW     By the way.

BYKT     Big but you knew that.

CMIIW     Correct me if I'm wrong.

EOL     End of lecture.

FAQ     Frequently asked questions.

FITB     Fill in the blanks.

FWIW     For what it's worth.

FYI     For your information.

G     Grinning.

HTH     Hope this helps.

IAC     In any case.

IAE     In any event.

ICL     In Christian love.

IMCO     In my considered opinion.

IMHO     In my humble opinion.

IMNSHO     In my not so humble opinion.

IMO     In my opinion.

IOW     In other words.

J     Joking.

L     Laughing.

LOL     Laughing out loud or lots of luck.

MGB     May God bless.

MHOTY     My hat's off to you.

NRN     No reply necessary.

OIC     Oh, I see.

OTOH     On the other hand.

ROTF     Rolling on the floor.

ROFL     Rolling on the floor laughing.

RSN     Real soon now.

S     Smiling.

SITD     Still in the dark.

TIA     Thanks in advance.

TIC     Tongue in cheek.

TTY     Talk to you later.

TYVM     Thank you very much.

WYSIWYG     What you see is what you get.

Y     Yawning.

In other cases combinations of symbols are meaningful:

:( or :-(     Expresses unhappiness.

:] or :-]    Expresses jovial happiness.

:[ or :-[     Conveys despondent unhappiness.

:D or :-D     Expresses jovial happiness.

:I or :-I     Indicates indifference.

:-/ or :-\     Indicates confusion, undecidedness or sceptical.

:Q or :-Q     Expresses confusion.

:s or :-S     Conveys loss of words or incoherence.

:@ or :-@     Expresses shock or screaming.

:O or :-O     Indicates surprise or, yelling or realisation of
an error (Oh).

You can find a full list of emoticons at:

www.techdictionary.com/emoticon.html  

Remember, just do not over-use emoticons, as you may find that
instead of clarifying a situation or feeling you just further
confuse the position because not everyone is cognizant with them.

8.25. Shortcut Menus

When you are in any of the Outlook Express windows, folders or
when you have focus on a message in your Inbox or have a message
open on screen, you can
always, as an alternative to many of the keystroke shortcut
commands, bring up a shortcut Context Menu. You simply do this
by pressing SHIFT F10 and then ARROW up or down the shortcut
commands listed there. These commands will be different,
depending on the window you are currently in. These types of
shortcut menus are frequently found in other Windows programs,
too.

For example, If you press SHIFT F10 whilst a message in your
Inbox has focus (without opening it), you can then ARROW up to
"Properties" and press ENTER, then, in navigation or mouse mode,
ARROW up and down many of the details pertinent to that message,
e.g. the sender's return e-mail address. In this same Context
Menu, you can also ARROW to and do such things as reply to the
sender, forward the message to someone else as an attachment,
mark the message as read, move or copy the message to one of your
other Outlook Express folders, add the sender's e-mail address
and other details to your Address Book, etc.

8.26. Sending Coloured Business-Type HTML Formatted E-Mails with
Pictures or Sounds

Up to now we have been sending plain text e-mails only but you
can spice e-mails up by sending them in HTML format. This would
not be recommended if you are sending messages to visually
impaired people but you may wish to send the occasional
impressively formatted business e-mail and you may wish to send
such as a Christmas message to a friend which uses the
"Christmas" stationery provided in Outlook Express and you may
wish to include a musical sound to be played when the message is
opened or your own voice saying "Merry Christmas" which you may
have recorded in a sound editor such as Sound forge, Cakewalk or
Total Recorder.

Having said this, remember that formatted messages with coloured
backgrounds, pictures, audio sounds and so forth will take much
longer for you to upload and for the recipient to download. This
is OK if the recipient has a fast Internet connection such as
broadband but you may get few thanks from someone with a 28.8
KBPS modem who had to download the message and did not even want
it!

I suggest that you try some of the below and e-mail the messages
to yourself to get an idea of the different upload and download
overhead involved. 

So that you are aware that this more sophisticated e-mailing
format is available, here is a snapshot of what you might do:

1. Open a new message window by pressing CONTROL N or after
selecting someone from your Address Book.

2. Then press ALT O (for Format) and then ARROW UP to "Rich Text
HTML" and press ENTER. This will change the format of this
message from plain text to HTML format.

3. Now go back into the Format menu with ALT O and ARROW down the
many formatting choices you can make. Open up some of the
dialogue boxes and sub-menus in here and have a look around and
experiment.

4. For example: 

A. If you press ENTER on "Style" you will be able to ARROW down
and choose from several styles of message very similar to those
available in MS Word styles, such as Creating your
message/document with heading levels, with numbered or bulleted
lists, etc.

B. If you press ENTER on "Font" you can select a more salubrious
looking type face for your message.

C. Pressing Enter on "Increase Indent" quickly indents your
message a little.

D. The "Background" option gives you sub-options of "Picture",
"Colour" and "Sound". If you choose "Colour" you can change the
background colour on your messages to such as yellow, green, etc;
if you choose "Picture" you can then type the path to a picture
file or select one from a list of about 40 in "Look In"; and you
can do a similar thing by choosing "Sound" and then "Browse" and
selecting a sound file with a .WAV extension to insert into the
message from a list of over 70 in your Windows operating system.

E. Now TAB to "Apply Stationery" and press ENTER to go into the
sub-menu. In here there are around seven stationery templates you
can select to give your message a particular look, such as "Party
Invitation", "Formal Announcement" and "Technical", etc. The
"More" button lets you type the path to other HTML templates if
you know the whereabouts of any.   

5. When you have made your formatting selections, type your
message and send it in the normal way and, if you do not have a
broadband Internet connection such as ADSL, wait and wait and
wait for it to upload! In typing your message body, you can, when
using HTML formatting, employ the usual shortcuts to underline,
embolden and italicize text, i.e. CONTROL U, CONTROL B and
CONTROL I respectively. This is, of course, in contrast to
sending e-mail using plain text, which does not permit this type
of formatting.

6. You should not have to go back into the Format menu when you
next send a message to turn HTML off, as the program should go
back to your "Plain Text" default. 

8.27. Accessing your E-mail Whilst Away from Home with Web Mail

You can still access your e-mail if on someone else's computer
in the UK or whilst abroad. Here is how you would do it.

8.27.1. Accessing E-Mail whilst Abroad

If you want to keep up to your e-mail whilst abroad, e.g. using
someone else's computer anywhere in the world, such as at an
Internet cafe, you can usually do this. In this case, you will
need to have an Internet-based, Web mail account provider which
may not be part of your ISP, such as provided by Hotmail and
Yahoomail. With one of these you can just log onto their Web
pages with your e-mail client, provide your username and
password, and then view your e-mail online, delete any number of
your e-mails or download them for viewing offline. You may also
be able to view your e-mail whilst online with Internet Explorer.

8.27.2. Accessing E-Mail whilst elsewhere in Your Own Country

On the other hand, if you are still in the UK but not at home,
if you have an ISP-based e-mail mailbox, you should be able to
use Internet Explorer to go to their Web pages, find their
mailbox or mailzone link (or some similar titled link), log on
with your username and password and view or delete the messages.
However, whilst most ISP e-mail providers will also permit you
to download your mail, a few do not allow this. If it is not
clear when on your ISP's site just what you are allowed to do and
there is no help link, then e-mail or phone their helpline for
clarification of their rules.

For example, if I wanted to view my e-mail online, delete any of
it or download all or some of my messages, I would use my
Internet browser to log onto one of my ISP's sites at:

www.onetel.com

and then activate the "Mailzone" link which is just a few TAB
presses from the top of the home page, followed by typing in my
username and password in that order in the editfields provided
and then TABBING once to the "Get Mail" link and pressing ENTER.
I would then have full access to my e-mail messages for reading
online or deleting.

There are usually also alternative addresses you can use to get
to your mailbox on your ISPs site, e.g. using
http://webmail.onetel.com also works in my case.

8.28. Breaking Large Messages into Smaller blocks for E-Mailing

Some people's mailboxes on their ISPs server will not accept very
large e-mails, e.g. those with large sound or video files
attached to them, although most will accept up to 5 Mb in size.
If you encounter this problem, you can elect to make Outlook
Express split your e-mails into smaller blocks before it sends
them, to avoid rejection. Conversely, if you find that your e-
mails are already being sent in chunks instead of in one file and
you wish to stop this, you can also use the below procedure to
reverse this.

1. Press ALT T (for Tools)and then a (for Accounts).

2. If you are not already on the "Mail" property sheet, SHIFT TAB
until you get to the tab/sheet title and then right or left ARROW
until you get their. Then Tab to a list of e-mail accounts you
may have set up on your computer and leave focus on the main
(default) e-mail account you use. Now open up its properties by
either TABBING to the "Properties" button or pressing ALT P.

3. You will now be in another multi-tabbed dialogue box, so SHIFT
TAB backwards once to the property sheet title you are in
(probably "General") and then right ARROW to the "Advanced"
sheet. In the Advanced sheet TAB until you get to "Break Apart
Messages Larger Than" and if you want to stop messages from being
split up, press SPACEBAR to turn this off. If it is already off
and you want to turn it on, press SPACEBAR to check it and then
TAB once to an editfield and either type in the size (in Kb) of
the chunks of data you wish to send in each block or ARROW up or
down the list of size choices.

4. TAB to "OK" and press ENTER. Note that in the "Advanced" sheet
you can turn on or off several other advanced features, such as
requiring a server to use a SSL secure connection (if your ISP
supports this), whether you wish to leave a copy of your messages
on your ISPs server rather than automatically deleting these
after you have downloaded them (again if the ISP permits this),
etc. 

8.29. Setting up an Hotmail or other Account

In Windows 98 and above, if instead of or in addition to your
present e-mail account you would like to open an Hotmail or other
e-mail account, using Outlook Express, you can do so as follows.
However, since October 2004, Hotmail has stopped providing its
e-mail download to Outlook Express service free of charge, so you
will have to sign up for a payment account if you wish to use
Outlook Express as your e-mail client together with Hotmail.
However, you can still open a free Hotmail account but you will
have to view your messages by going to the www.Hotmail.com site,
logging on and read them online.

Hotmail Example:

1. With Outlook Express running, press ALT T (for Tools) and then
A (for Accounts).

2. In the dialogue which you come into showing your present
account(s) if you have any, TAB to "Add" and activate it by
pressing the SPACEBAR.

3. Next ARROw down to and choose "Mail" from the list you come
into and press ENTER.

4. The wizard which now takes over setting up your account asks
you for certain details. If you already have an account set up
on your computer, the wizard will use your present default
account details for your new account but you can change any of
these by overtyping them. The wizard will want to know:

A. The display name for your new account, which can be anything
of your own choosing and will be what others see when you e-mail
them from this new address, so type in your own name or something
unique but not too embarrassing.

B. TAB once to "Next" and press ENTER and then type your normal
e-mail address in here if it is not already entered for you, e.g.
mine would be jwjw@onetel.com but, of course, enter your own
here, e.g. franksmith@hotmail.com, then press ENTER.

C. The next part is the most technical and potentially confusing.
You now come into a series of changing editfields asking you if
you have either a POP3, Imap or HTTP incoming e-mail server And
you can SHIFT TAB backwards to a list of these three incoming
server options to ARROW through, so leave focus on the one you
want, which for this example is "HTTP" for an Hotmail account but
for most other accounts will be POP3. Depending on the choice you
made above, when you now TAB forward once again note that with
the Hotmail choice you will now have three more choices in here
which you can ARROW up and down, namely Hotmail, MSN and Other,
so ARROW to the one you want, which will be Hotmail for this
exercise. With the other two choices first-mentioned of POP3 and
Imap, you will not get the last-mentioned three choices. Next you
now TAB once to another editfield where you will be required to
again type server details in, which will be the type of your e-
mail outgoing server protocol, which for Hotmail means that
"Hotmail" should already be entered in here but for most other
servers will be the name of your "SMTP" server. Then press ENTER.

Note: If you are setting up incoming and outgoing e-mail which
is not on the Hotmail servers, in the POP3 and SMTP editfields,
you will have to enter the POP3 and SMTP addresses of your e-mail
provider. These facts can be obtained from your ISP or other e-
mail providers helpline if you do not already know them. For
instance, mine are: 

mail.onetel.com 

for both the POP3 and SMTP editfields. Yours will be different
unless you are also using OneTel as your provider, e.g. they may
be something like pop.cwcom.net for the POP3 part and
smtp.cwcom.net for the SMTP part.

D. The next stage is where you are asked for your logon and
account details, which will have been provided to you by your ISP
or other e-mail service provider, e.g. you will be given the
first part of your above-chosen e-mail address for this but you
can overtype this with something else if you like. Then TAB to
"Password" and type in here your existing Hotmail or other e-mail
provider's password you already use if you have one or if you
have no password type any password you would like and TAB to
"Remember Password" which will be checked by default so that you
do not have to type your password in every time you use your e-
mail account. Press SPACEBAR to uncheck this if you do want to
type it in and therefore have full security from others using
your account. Then press ENTER.

E. The last stage of the wizard is the congratulations screen
telling you that you have been successful in setting the new
account up, so press ENTER on the "Finish" button you are now on.

5. The wizard will close and you now return to your original
dialogue box. If you like, you can now make your new Hotmail or
other account the default account to use for e-mail by:

A. SHIFT TAB backwards a couple of times to your list of e-mail
providers, then ARROW to the Hotmail account and then TAB to the
"Properties" button and press ENTER.

B. Your new e-mail account properties and details will now
display. You can TAB through and view the editfields in here to
see your display name, e-mail address, reply address, etc. If you
would like to change any of these to suit your new e-mail
account, you can do so, e.g. complete the "Reply Address"
editfield with the new Hotmail e-mail address you supplied above,
whatever that was, e.g. franksmith@hotmail.com. If you would also
like this new e-mail address to be included in any e-mailing
session when Outlook Express checks your servers for e-mail, you
should check on the "Include this Account for Receiving and
Synchronizing " if it is not already on.    

C. TAB to "OK" and press ENTER. 

6. You return again to the original dialogue you started in. If
you would like to make your new Hotmail e-mail account your
default (usual account to be used when e-mailing), TAB to the
"Set as Default" button and press ENTER. 

7. To complete this part of the procedure and finish, TAB to
"Close" and press ENTER.

Note 1: If you want to delete an e-mail account, after pressing
ALT T, A, in step 1 above, you can ARROW to the account in
question and then TAB to "Remove" and press ENTER.

Note 2: As you will have gathered, the above Hotmail set-up
 procedure, of course, is only one of two procedures you will
have to go through to get a workable Hotmail account. It sets
things up at your computer side of things only. You will also
have to go online to the Hotmail Website to set up your account
there as well. You will have to provide a username and password
for yourself and, unfortunately, as is commonly the case these
days, you will have to be able to see a graphic to type details
into an editfield to sign on to the Hotmail site. If you cannot
see this graphic, you will need sighted help to complete the
whole hotmail set-up process. 

Note 3: Be aware that a Hotmail e-mail account does not work the
same as most ISPs e-mail account mailboxes. Instead of
automatically downloading all of your e-mail in the server's
mailbox, what you initially download is the headers of your e-
mails from the mailbox. You then go through the headers, subject
lines, etc, and delete those you do not want, after which you go
back online and download only the undeleted messages. The
unwanted messages in your mailbox will then also be deleted. So,
in this respect, Hotmail e-mail works in a similar way to
downloading newsgroup headers.

8.30. Using Imap to Manipulate Your E-Mail 

Some ISPs, e-mail server providers and company LAN servers also
provide what is known as ImaP Internet Message Protocol (IMAP),
which essentially permits you to keep all of your e-mail messages
on a server so that you can carry out whatever actions you want
to do on them on the server, e.g. read them online, delete them,
back them up, etc. As this is an online protocol, you do need to
be online all the time you are reading messages. This is fine if
you have a broadband connection or are working on a LAN but if
you only have a standard MODEM and use a dial-up program, paying
as you go, this would not be practical for most people.  

Note 1: Outlook Express 5.5 and 6.0 are almost identical to
version 5.0 in their general operation, property sheets, folders,
shortcut keystrokes, etc, but if you have Outlook Express 5.5 and
want to view the additional features in that version over version
5.0, plus some no longer supported options, see the "Readme.txt"
file in the Help Menu. You may, however, get better results from
an up-to-date screenreader over one which was created before
OE5.5 or 6.0 were released, so check with your screenreader
manufacturer before upgrading to newer versions. You should also
ensure that your ISP also supports any newer version.

Note 2: To see a full list of Outlook Express shortcut
keystrokes, go to Appendix 4.

                           ********

                           >SECTION 9

               JOINING MAIL LISTS AND NEWS LISTS

Some of the better-known list managers are Listserv, YahooGroups,
Topica, OneList, Yahoogroups, Listproc, Egroups, Smartgroups and
Majordomo. Some of these lists are controlled by humans and
others by computers. 

To subscribe to an e-mail list (usually no charge) the way to
register is in the following general form. Send an e-mail worded
something like:

recycle-it-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

or

blindcook-subscribe@onelist.com

or

blindad-request@maelstrom.stjohns.edu

in the "To:" field of the e-mail header.

You may need to add something either in the subject or body of
the message, such as "Please add me to the Recycle-IT list" or
"subscribe recycle-it john wilson" (but use yor own name, of
course).

(All three of these lists do exist. The first deals with the
topic of selling specialist secondhand computer-related equipment
and just about anything else privately between list members in
the UK; the second hosts tips, equipment and cookery recipes and
methods from a blind perspective and is a US-based list.; the
third is a US list again for advertising or requesting new or
second-hand items.)

Example:

9.1. The Listserv Server 

Whilst many of the below commands will work with the Listserv
list server and the individual Techno-L list itself, not all
will, as this is an example only. The commands and form will vary
from server to server and list to list.

To subscribe to the UK techno-l e-mail list via the provider
called Listserv you would use the form:

listserv@listserv.nas.net

typed into the "To:" field of your e-mail header and in the
message field enter the message:

subscribe techno-l john wilson

with no entry in the subject field. Here Subscribe is your
request, techno-l is the name of the list you want to subscribe
to (its a solid, real-life UK-based e-mail list) and anything
after that is supposed to be your real name but could, of course,
be a pseudonym--don't use Batman, they will know you are lying!
Shortly afterwards you will receive a return e-mail confirming
that your message was received and possibly giving you some
instructions on how to proceed. You will have to confirm your
request to join this list by replying to this e-mail.

To unsubscribe, again send an e-mail to listserv@listserv.nas.net
and in the body of the message type:

signoff techno-l

To send a message to the owner (administrator, known as a
Moderator) of the list send an e-mail to:

techno-l-request@listserv.nas.net

In other cases, the format for contacting the owner of a list may
be as follows:

owner-techno-l

To temporarily stop mail from being sent from the techno-l list
say, if your going on holiday for two weeks, send a message to:

listserv@listserv.nas.net

and in the message field type:

set techno-l nomail

but note that this will have to be done for all lists on the
Listserv server and any other servers you are subscribed to if
you want all messages suspending.

To recommence mailing use:

set techno-l mail

If you get lots of messages from a particular list and would like
to receive them all at once in the form of a digest, send a
message to the particular individual list saying, for example:

techno-l digest

To find out who else is subscribed to a list (but not those who
opt to be unlisted) send the message:

review techno-l

If you do not wish to appear in the above "Review" subscribers
list, send the message:

set techno-l conceal

To obtain a list of past files on the list send the message:

index

To request one of the files in the index send the message:

get (listname) (filename)

To find out what listserv lists are available on a particular
host send the message:

list 

To find out what other facilities are available on listserv send
the message:

help

If you want more information on Listserv commands, you can obtain
this by retrieving the Listserv reference card with the following
command in the body of a message:

info refcard

and by sending it to listserv@maelstrom.stjohns.edu

To send a message to the other subscribers to a list send it to:

listserv@(hostname)

Where the hostname is the name of the list, e.g. techno-l. Or the
form may be:

techno-l@listserv.nas.net 

If you reply to an e-mail message, you will find that some lists
are set up to relay the message to all other subscribers, whereas
others just forward your reply to the specific original message
sender. Therefore, before replying, check the contents of your
e-mail "To:" editfield to discover where it will go.

Furthermore, some mailing lists are "gatewayed" to Usenet
newsgroups, so anything you submit to the list will also be
forwarded to newsgroups and vis versa.

                           ********

                          >SECTION 10

                       USENET NEWSGROUPS

10.1. What are Usenet Newsgroups?

Newsgroups are the interest groups which together make up the
Usenet news system. Newsgroups work similarly to e-mail but the
news is not automatically sent to subscribers. Instead, the
information is posted where interested persons can go and read
specific topics. The newsgroups available to you depend on what
your Internet service provider (ISP) provides.

10.2. component Parts of Newsgroup Names and What They Mean 

Newsgroups have multipart names separated by full stops, such as:

 comp.dcom.fax 

 The suffix (or other part) of a newsgroup name often indicates
the type of subject it covers and some of the main newsgroups
are:

comp--topics to do with computers.

sci--Topics to do with science.

rec--To do with recreational matters, including sports and
 hobbies.

soc--is to do with social newsgroups.

news--topics on Net news itself.

misc--Covers miscellaneous matters.

talk--Deals with political and argumentative types of topics.

To read newsgroup articles you have to use a news reading
program, such as Free Agent, Outlook Express or Netscape. The
articles are mainly text files but there are some binary
(including graphics)  files, such as the ALT binary groups.

For a list of Usenet newsgroups go to:

net.dummies.net/usenet

Some newsgroups of interest to new newsgroup users are:

news.announce.newusers--For general advice and tips.

news.newusers.questions--Where you can view questions others have
asked about newsgroups and post questions of your own.

news.answers.--To obtain answers about Usenet.

044.general--To read general UK news.
 
                           ********

                          >SECTION 11

READING NEWSGROUPS WITH OUTLOOK EXPRESS Versions 5.0, 5.5 AND 6.0

>From personal experience, whilst Outlook Express is usable with
speech and from the keyboard, I would recommend that you use it
for your e-mail only and use Free Agent for news posting and
reading instead. This preference, though, may not be the case for
all users, depending on which screenreader they have--try them
both and make up your own mind. To find out how to use Free
Agent, see Section 12, "Reading Newsgroups with Free Agent
Version 1.21" below.  

If your version of Windows 95 contains only the older newsgroups
reading program called "Internet News", you can download the
Outlook Express update from:

www.microsoft.com 

11.1. Launching Outlook Express as a News Reader

To Launch Outlook Express as a News Reader, you can either:

1.a. Run the Internet Explorer program and then press ALT T, M,
N, which will load Outlook Express with its default news reader.
Press ENTER on the "Connect" button if you want to go online
immediately or TAB forward to "Work Offline" to work without the
phone line being open, then press the ESC key.

1.b. Run Outlook Express directly, from its icon on the Desktop,
or from the Program Files folder. Press ENTER on the "Connect"
button if you want to go online immediately or TAB forward to
"Work Offline" to work without the phone line being open, then
press the ESC key.

2. If this is the first time you have loaded Outlook Express as
a newsgroups reader, you will be asked to provide certain
information to log on (see "Internet Service Provider Details"
in the Free Agent section below). You will also be asked if you
want Outlook Express to immediately go to your ISP server and
download all the newsgroups it holds so that you can subscribe
to some of these. You should accept this offer.

3. Whichever of the above two methods you use (1.a. or 1.b.), you
can then TAB through several links to "Read News" and press
ENTER.

4. After the newsgroups are loaded (this could take a minute or
two) you ARROW up and down your subscribed newsgroups and press
the TAB key on one you want to look at the individual headers in
(if you have already downloaded these) followed by arrowing again
to move through the headers. Press ENTER on any header to have
it read (if the message has already been downloaded) or the
program will ask if you now want to go online and retrieve the
selected message.  

11.2. Subscribing to Newsgroups

To get started reading news you will have to subscribe (join)
some. To do this you should be online. You should then press
CONTROL W to open the newsgroups dialogue box. You will land in
an editfield which is a type of search box in which you can type
a string to find particular types of discussion groups you are
interested in, e.g. type "blind", and all the newsgroups with
"blind" in their names will be found. TAB on twice to a
newsgroups list which now shows all the found newsgroups for your
"blind" search (if no search string is entered, the list will
contain all of the newsgroups on the current server). If you have
ARROWED to a particular newsgroup above, just TAB on then to the
"Subscribe" button, press SPACEBAR or ENTER, TAB to "Go" and
press ENTER again. The newly subscribed newsgroup will now appear
with your others at the bottom of the Local Folders list and the
available headers in that newsgroup will be fetched from the
server.

At a later date you will want to update your list of headers. to
obtain more headers, with the focus on the newsgroup you want
them from, you press ALT T, G, and the next 300 headers will be
downloaded to sift through.

11.3. Deleting a Newsgroup

All you have to do to delete a newsgroup with all of its
headers/articles is press the DEL key followed by ENTER when the
newsgroup has focus in the Local Folders list.
 
11.4. Pen-picture of the Outlook Express Screen

For a description of the Outlook Express screen, see "Pen-Picture
of the Outlook Express Screen" in Section 8 above.

To navigate through the various subscribed newsgroups and subject
headers, use a combination of your TAB key and the ARROW keys.
You should be aware that the folders you will "see" include e-
mail details as well as newsgroups. TABBING forward will take you
past several links including the Address Book (list of saved e-
mail addresses for later use), the Local Folders list (with your
e-mail Inbox, Outbox, sent Items,etc), Read Mail link (takes you
to your Inbox of e-mails), Read News link (takes you to your
newsgroups folder to read news, some links to search for things
and a number of other links. If you go to the newsgroup you want
a list of articles from and press ENTER, Outlook Express will go
to this site on the Net and fetch a list of article headers in
that group for you to choose from. Just press ENTER on the
title/header you want to read and the article will be fetched and
loaded for reading.   

Alternatively, you can open up your Local Folders list by
pressing CONTROL Y,  then ARROW down, when you will hear your
list of subfolders in your Local Folders list, e.g. Inbox, Sent
Items, etc,  and then move on to your list of newsgroup server
main folders. To open a list of the subscribed newsgroups on any
news server folder, press ENTER and the newsgroups will open up
to ARROW through and press ENTER on.

11.5. Basic Online News Reading

To read news online (if you are not already connected to the
Net), press ENTER on the "Connect" button 
when this shows to instruct Outlook Express to go online and
retrieve and display each article as you press ENTER on its
title. You can also press CONTROL less than key (<) and CONTROL
greater than key (>) to move to the previous and next article
respectively in the current group. Pressing CONTROL U takes you
to the next unread message. To close the current message and go
back to the messages list to read another message, press the ESC
key and then ARROW up and down to make further choices. 

If, instead of downloading a whole group of messages or headers
as in the above paragraph, you only want to download one or two
messages, you can select the headers you want while offline. To
do this: 

1. while offline, select the downloaded message titles/headers
which interest you in the usual Windows way, e.g. CONTROL held
down whilst you ARROW to each non-consecutive message you want
and then press SPACEBAR on each of the required messages to
highlight them. 

2. Then, when your ready to go online, you press ALT T, S, to 
"Synchronise Newsgroups" and then go offline again after all
selected messages have downloaded from the server.

3. If you would like to display only those messages which you
selected for offline reading, after disconnecting from the Net,
press ALT V, V, S, to show only downloaded messages.

To find a message in a long list of downloaded headers, with the
focus in the headers list, press CONTROL SHIFT F, TAB to the
"Subject" editfield and type in some of the text in the message
header you want to find, then press ALT I or TAB to the "Find"
button and press ENTER. The message will either be opened for
reading or you will be taken to it on the Net to read or
download. 

11.6. Filtering News Messages

To find out how to view only certain messages and restrict
others, see "Viewing Only Specific Mail and News Messages" in
Section 8 above. You should also look at "Using Message Rules to
Sort Messages", in Section 8 for even more fine tuning of what
happens to newsgroup messages.

11.7. Deleting Messages and Headers

To clean up your newsgroups folder and remove all messages after
you have read them, press ALT T, O, CONTROL TAB to the
"Maintenance" sheet and press ALT C. Then TAB to the "File
Information Browse" button and press ENTER, followed by ARROWING
to the newsgroup folder you want to empty and then TAB to OK and
press ENTER. Then TAB to the "Delete" button, press ENTER and Y
to confirm. Repeat this if you have more than one newsgroup to
empty and then finish by pressing ENTER on "Close" followed by
ENTER on "OK".   

11.8. Responding to an Article with Outlook Express

The easiest way to respond to an article is to simply e-mail the
author. you can do this by pressing CONTROL R, following which
you type your message in the same editfield as the original
article and press ALT S to send it. 

However, if you want your communication to go to the whole
newsgroup, you can Press CONTROL G followed by ALT S. You
complete the posting by pressing CONTROL M. Besides adding your
reply to the message you should delete the parts of the original
message which are superfluous. 

11.9. Introducing a New Topic

If you wish to start a new topic of discussion rather than
commenting on one which is already in progress, with the focus
on the newsgroup you want to post the new message to, you press
CONTROL N. You then type your new article as normal, starting
from the "Subject" box. Then TAB to the message editfield and
compose your communication. Send it by pressing ALT S followed
by CONTROL M.

To join a newsgroup dedicated to the discussion of Outlook
Express, which also provides pier support, sign on to:

news://msnews.microsoft.com/microsoft.public.windows.inetexplo
rer.ie5.outlookexpress

Note: To see a full list of Outlook Express shortcut keystrokes,
see Appendix 4.
.

                           ********

                          >SECTION 12

           READING NEWS GROUPS WITH FORTE AGENT AND
                   FREE AGENT VERSIONS 1.92

This section will concentrate on the free version of Agent,
called "Free Agent" but most of the instructions will still apply
to the full, purchasable version called "Agent". Whether Outlook
Express or Free Agent works best for you as a
newsgroups reader will largely depend on the screenreader you are
using and how up to date it is. I suggest that you download the
combined Free Agent and full Agent software and compare the Forte
and Outlook Express News reading packages. You may also be
able to ask your screenreader manufacturer if he has (or will
create) a suitable set of script files for Free Agent.
Additionally, from a speech feedback point of view, Free Agent
is easier to use as a news reader than it is as a means of
sending, replying to and forwarding messages, but all of these
are still, nonetheless, achievable. These comments may, of
course, be more or less valid as both Outlook Express and
Agent/Free Agent are subjected to new minor updates and bug fixes
and interface improvements or regressions. 

12.1. Downloading Agent and Free Agent

To simultaneously download a 30-day try-and buy copy of the full
Agent software plus a free copy of Free Agent go to:

www.forteinc.com

What you do then is:

1. TAB or ARROW just a few times down to the "Downloads" link and
press ENTER.

2. You will have to ARROW or TAB well down this downloads page
to find where to download Agent, which is just underneath a
"Current Version" heading. You would therefore be best to jump
straight there by using your screenreader's find feature,
typically by pressing CONTROL F and then typing in "Current
Version" and pressing ENTER. 

3. From here ARROW down a few times past a "Agent 1.92" heading
to two lines below the "32 bit" heading where you will find an
"FTP" link.

4. Press ENTER on the "FTP" link and you will get a "Start"
Download" link to press ENTER on. 

5. The download will commence and you may wish to keep checking
the Status line to keep track of the download progress.
It is likely to take ten or fifteen minutes to complete with a
56K modem and is a file just over 2 Mb in size.

6. The file will download to your Desktop or wherever you may
have directed downloads to go to and will be called "A32-
192.exe". 

12.2. Installing Agent or Free Agent and Downloading Newsgroups

1. Go to the "A32-192.exe" file and press ENTER on it to commence
the installation. You will now have three choices, ether to go
for a new first-time installation or an upgrade to an older
version currently on your system. For a first-time installation,
just TAB to "Next" and press ENTER.

2. To have the program install into its default folder of:

c:\Program Files\Agent

just TAB to "Next" and press ENTER.

3. You will now have a choice of accepting the default character
sets of English and European languages but if you want additional
languages, press ENTER on the "Choose Additional" button and make
your choices in this dialogue box. Otherwise, simply go to "Next"
and press ENTER. The additional languages are part of the new
features of Version 1.92 which were not available on earlier
versions.

4. The next step asks you if you want a shortcut on your Start
Menu or anywhere else and if you press ENTER on "Yes" you will
get a list of places to put the shortcut. ARROW up to "Start Up"
for it to go onto your Start menu and then press ENTER on "Next".

5. Now you will be on the "Start" button, so press ENTER to
commence the installation. This will only take a few seconds,
when you will be on a "Finish" button to press ENTER on.

6. Whilst the installation proper is now complete, you are now
asked whether you would like to run the program as a fully-
featured free 30-day try-and-buy version or you can ARROW up or
down to other options, such as providing a key to run it fully-
featured if you have already bought a key to do this or you can
ARROW to the use Free Agent as a free but not fully-featured
package. After making your choice, TAB to "OK" and press ENTER. 

7. You now encounter the set-up page where you have to provide
Agent/Free Agent with some basic information for it to be able
to communicate with your news and mail server. In the "News NNTP
Server" editfield type in the name of your ISPs news server, e.g.
mine is "news.onetel.com". You then TAB to "Mail SMTP Server" and
typing the name of your ISPs mail server, e.g. mine is
"mail.onetel.com" and, lastly, you TAB to your e-mail address
field and complete this. Your name is optional. Then TAB to "OK"
and press ENTER. More information about this can be found in the
next section.

8. You then receive a message asking you if you now want to go
online to download a complete list of newsgroups available from
your server. You should accept this offer by pressing ENTER on
the "Yes" button but you can, if you wish, choose "No" and do
this later. When I last did this with my News server, on 4/8/02,
the download took six minutes and 35,754 available newsgroups
were downloaded. After this, remember to disconnect from the Net
before now examining the program and the downloaded newsgroups
as instructed below.  

12.3. Internet Service Provider Details

Whichever version of Free Agent/Agent you download, when you
install it or when you first launch it, you will have to complete
certain details for it to be able to function:

NNTp--The name of your Internet service provider's computer where
the news is stored, e.g. news.onetel.com or news.cwcom.net

SMTP--The name of the computer which handles outgoing mail, e.g.
mail.onetel.com or smtp.cwcom.net

You will also have to provide your e-mail address and name , then
press ENTER on "Next" to the end of the information completion.
Free Agent will then ask if you want to go online and get the
available newsgroups. You should accept this offer. It will take
some minutes to set up the first time but thereafter will be much
speedier. You are now ready to read news with Free Agent.

Note: If you do not know critical communication information such
as your NNTP and SMTP addresses, you should consult your ISPs
support or technical advice line for these details. 

12.4. Launching Agent and Free Agent

You can launch Free Agent in several ways:

1. If the installation placed a quick launch icon on your
Desktop, you can go to it by pressing Windows Logo key and M,
then press either A (for Agent) or F "for Free Agent) and then
press Enter.

2. If it placed a label in your Start Menu, launch it by pressing
Windows Logo key and then by ARROWING down the list until it is
spoken and press ENTER.

3. Launch it via the Run option on the Start Menu by pressing
Windows Logo key and R (for Run) together and then type into the
editfield:

c:\program files\agent\agent.exe

and press ENTER.

4. You could also navigate to the "agent.exe" program file using
Windows Explorer to launch it.

Having launched either Agent or Free Agent continue with the rest
of these instructions to discover how to use its most important
and useful newsgroup reading features.

12.5. Pen-Picture of the Free Agent Screen

Free Agent will open with three windows, the left one (at the
top) giving a list of newsgroups, the right one (at the top)
showing a list of available articles for the newsgroup which
currently has focus and the third one (at the
bottom) is the message viewer which displays an article in that
group for reading. You use the TAB key
to cycle through these windows and the ARROW keys to move up and
down the newsgroup and article lists. 

In addition to using the menus and shortcut keys, when in any of
the above three windows, you can click your right mouse
simulation key to bring up a context-sensitive list of common
operations. Just press ENTER on any one of these to quickly
perform that command. Depending on what has focus, you may also
be able to bring up an alternative Context Menu by pressing ALT
F 10.

12.6. Online Versus Offline News Reading

You can read news online by browsing and reading newsgroups as
you go and you are able to mark lengthy articles for later
download. Online reading will run up a phone bill, so, instead,
you may wish to use Free Agent as an offline news reader to keep
your phone bill down. to do this, press ALT N,  then ARROW
through the various options in here to the
"User and System Profile" if you are not already on it and then
CONTROL TAB to the "Online" property sheet and press ENTER on the
"Use Offline Defaults"
button. Your status line should tell you if you are or are not
offline. 

12.7. Subscribing to Newsgroups

You will have to navigate through the list of newsgroups which
were downloaded when you first installed the program to place
focus on one you are interested in and then press SPACEBAR to
highlight it and then press CONTROL S to mark it for
subscription.If you do not know what to subscribe
to, try:

news.announce.newusers

This contains basic information for new newsgroup users. ARROWING
down the list of thousands of newsgroups to find this is not
practical, so you can find it by pressing CONTROL F (for Find)
and typing the name of the newsgroup in and pressing ENTER, which
will go straight to the newsgroup. Having pressed CONTROL S to
subscribe, if you are not already online, you should then go on
line to effect the subscription, when the message headers will
be downloaded and be visible in the top right window. When the
headers are all downloaded, a message will be shown on the Status
Line saying "Finish Retrieving New Headers".

Groups are displayed alphabetically but, as already stated,  you
can search for particular groups by pressing CONTROL F, e.g to
find music groups type in "music" and press ENTER to be taken to
the first instance of a newsgroup with the word "music" in its
name. To see other instances of "music" press the F3 key.

To unsubscribe from a newsgroup, with the focus on that group in
the Newsgroups Window, Press SPACEBAR to highlight it and then
press CONTROL S and Y to keep the messages
you have already downloaded but not read or N to delete these.

To get the new available articles, connect to your ISP, start
Free Agent and then press ALT O, N (for Get New Headers in
Subscribed Groups). If you were not already online at this time,
you will be taken online at this point. Rather than viewing the
articles you are interested in immediately online, you can place
the focus on their titles/headers in the Messages Window, TAB to
the Message Viewer Window and press "M" to mark the message for
later retrieval (the Message Viewer Window should indicate the
length, in numbers of lines, of the message you are marking for
download). When you have marked all the messages which interest
you, you should Press ALT O, M, to "Get Marked
Message Bodies". The Status Line will keep track of the state of
downloading. You can then go offline and read the downloaded
articles. Press CONTROL B to move from one downloaded article to
another. 

If you would like to be able to "see" more information about the
article headers in the headers window list, you should press the
h key, wen other details about each header, such as its author's
name, and the date and time it was sent will be displayed as
well. 

To view only the groups you have subscribed to rather than
thousands of unwanted groups, press ALT G, h, S. If you want to
open up the whole message list again, press ALT G, H, A..  

12.8. Navigation in Free Agent

There are a number of navigation keystrokes you can use in Free
Agent and even more in the full Agent version but only those
which work with both versions will be covered here.  Of them the
below are of particular interest. 

Pressing ENTER whilst in the View window will take you online to
download the message body of the message header which currently
has focus in the headers list.

Pressing ENTER on a message header will open the message in the
Message Viewer Window for reading.

Articles have threads (also known as conversations) which link
them and you can press "N" to highlight the header for the next
related article in the thread or the next thread if the article
you are on is the last article in this thread.  

You can skip to the next unread message in the current thread
with "T" and, similarly, pressing "B" skips to the next unread
message body.

Pressing "S" marks all messages in a group/folder read if you
then press Y for yes.

To zoom in on a window and make it full screen, press "Z" whilst
the focus is in the window (repeat this to restore things). 

To expand a thread (open up all of the subsequent responses to
the original message)press the equals sign (=) and press the dash
(-) to collapse it. 

You can view the next unread message in the current thread with
CONTROL T. 

You can use CONTROL N to go to the next article in the
thread and retrieve it automatically. 

Note: If you invoke a shortcut whichis only supported in the full
Agent version, you will be told this and be able to press ENTER
to close the message and continue with no adverse effect.

12.9. Changing Preferences 

If you press ALT N to enter the Options menu, you can ARROW down
a menu with several preferences options which you can change to
suit yourself, e.g. press ENTER on any of the menu options and
then CONTROL TAB between the various property sheets (this may
not be easy and you may have to resort to your mouse cursor to
access the property sheets and then TAB down any one of these to
make changes to such things as what size and style font will be
used, laces to
check/change your personal e-mail and news reading details, etc.
There are hundreds of configuration changes and refinements you
can make in these tabs and property sheets, so have a good look
through them at some stage.

Note: You will find that some of the above option tabs are not
enabled in the free version of Agent, e.g. "Inbound Email" and
"Menus and Toolbars".

12.10. Keeping News Messages

Free Agent will automatically purge (delete) news messages when
they are old but if you want to keep one so that Free Agent
cannot delete it you would put the focus on the message header
in the Messages Window and press the letter K. An icon (graphic)
will appear at the left of the message. If you want to be able
to delete this message at a later stage, you will have to repeat
this sequence, when the keep icon will disappear. 

12.11. Deleting News Messages

To delete a single message, with the focus on the Message Window,
ARROW to the message and press the DEL key followed by the letter
Y. If you want to delete several messages, select them in the
normal Windows way and press the DEL key followed by Y to
confirm, e.g. press CONTROL HOME to the top of the list of
messages, then hold down the CONTROL AND SHIFT KEYS and press the
END key followed by the DEL key and Y to confirm to delete all
the messages in a given newsgroup.

To delete a whole newsgroup and its messages, with the focus on
the newsgroup, press ALT G, D, and Y to confirm.

12.12. Responding to an Article with Free Agent

To reply to an article directly to its author by e-mail, with the
focus in the Message Viewer Window, press the letter "R", when
Free Agent will open a new window in which you can edit a message
or header. The "To:", "Subject:" and "From:" editfields will
automatically be completed for you. After typing your message, 
press ALT S to send it. If the "To:" editfield is incorrect, the
program will advise you and allow you to return to it and type
in a valid e-mail address. After this press ALT S again to send
it.  

To send a follow-up comment on a Usenet article, press the letter
F, type the message and send it by pressing ALT S. The "To:"
editfield will be completed with the newsgroup name
automatically, etc, as with replying to a message by e-mail
above. 

If you try to exit Free Agent with e-mail or usenet messages
unsent, it will offer you the opportunity to send them
immediately by pressing Y for yes or N for no. To post a number
of stored messages when you go online, press ALT O, P.

When you want to introduce a new subject of conversation rather
than following up an old one, with the focus on the header in
question, press the letter P, type the subject in the "Subject:"
field, which you will already be in, press TAB and type in the
message body. Send it as before by pressing ALT S.

Note: To see a full list of Free Agent shortcut keystrokes, go
to Appendix 4.

12.13. Sorting News Messages

If you would like your messages sorting using different criteria
from the default of sort by thread, you can press ALT G, O, and
select from subject, author, date received, size in lines of text
and date deleted.

12.14. Getting More Help

To obtain more information about Free Agent's capabilities (of
which it has many more), press ALT H for help, and hit ENTER on
the "Contents" option. Read through the "Getting Started" section
first and then progress to other sections. 

You can also press ALT H, I and then type in any word you wish
to have searched for to fined information on that topic, e.g
"offline", TAB to the nextlist and ARROW up and down the
different offline topics (if there is more than one), then TAB
again to the "Display" button and press ENTER.

Another way of obtaining help on common topics is to press ALT
H, H and then TAB through the offerings here and press ENTER on
one of them to hear guidance, e.g. on "How to Use Agent as an
Offline News Reader". Press ESCAPE to leave help.

You can obtain a free copy of the full Agent users' guide in Word
format from:

www.forteinc.com

and download the zip file called:

agtman15.exe

12.15. Some More Free Agent Keyboard Shortcuts

Press ENTER--To view a list of messages in the selected group.

Press CONTROL O--To go online.

Press P--To post a new Usenet message. 

Press ALT enter--To view the properties for the selected group.

Press CONTROL S--To subscribe to or unsubscribe from newsgroups.

Press F--to forward a reply to a newsgroup message.

Press ALT M, O--To make the text in the message window wrap.

The standard windows shortcut keystrokes are also generally
available in Free Agent, e.g. CONTROL P to print, CONTROL c to
copy, CONTROL A to select all, etc. 

                           ********

                          >SECTION 13

          DOWNLOADING FILES AND PROGRAMS FROM THE NET

You can copy files from one system to another on the Internet
with either File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP). These can be text files, pictures, programs,
home brew beer recipes, etc. 

When you type a URL (Web address) or press ENTER on a Web page
link you are downloading a file onto your PC from the Web. To
download a file from the Web without it automatically running,
hold down the SHIFT key whilst pressing ENTER on the download
link.

13.1. FTP File Downloads

An FTP server holds many files and you may be able to upload
files of your own to it as well as downloading files onto your
PC from it. You cannot download files from a "private" FTP site.
If you want to download a file from a "public" FTP server, which
you do not have an account with, you can do so by logging in as
"anonymous" and typing your e-mail address as your password. 

FTP sites are often easier to obtain files from than regular WWW
sites, as you do not have to complete online forms on them before
downloading. The site will be structured in the same way as DOS
directories (and Windows folders) are. You just press ENTER on
any of the folders to move to the subfolder and press ENTER on
the file you want to download to commence the downloading. When
you are on the site, to find out what is available there and what
the shortened filenames contain, you should view the "Readme" and
"Index" files or any associated TXT or similar files.

You can download two types of FTP files to your hard disk: ASCII
and binary. 

If you want to get files via FTP, you need an FTP client program.
Most Windows 9X browsers can handle FTP downloads and if you have
a PPP or SLIP account you can also use a winsock FTP program,
e.g.
WS-FTP. Other FTP client programs which are reasonably
screenreader-friendly are such as FTP Explorer, CuteFTP, NCFTP
and FTP Voyger. 

The other means of obtaining files from the Web is by pressing
ENTER on the link or typing the full URL path in the address box
and pressing ENTER, when your Windows browser will act as the FTP
client for the download from the server. Internet Explorer can
handle this for you. 

An FTP URL takes the following form:

ftp://servername/directoryname/filename

If you leave out the directory name and filename, you will be
taken to the top level directory of that FTP server, e.g.:

 ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/

This path has no filename, so you are taken to the top level
directory. 

13.2. HTTP File Downloads

However, more commonly, you will find yourself going to "WWW"
sites to download files from the Net. These always start with
"HTTP://" but Internet Explorer automatically prefixes your URLs
with this, so you do not have to type it in. Additionally, not
all Web addresses commence with FTP or WWW, so if you see an
address of this type, just type it into the address field as
usual, e.g. access.adobe.com 

If you are typing an address into the address field of Internet
Explorer which ends in ".htm" or ".html", this means the file you
are downloading is a single file, not a program, and has been
written in HTML language. This file will normally be best read
from within your browser. However, you are often given two
choices of format for downloading files from WWW sites: HTML or
text. If you TAB to the "text" option before downloading, you
will be able to read the downloaded data file in any word-
processor or text editor but it will loose its formatting.

13.3. File Download Steps

The steps you take to retrieve a file are:

1. Run your Web browser.

2. Type the URL in the address box (after pressing CONTROL O) and
press ENTER. The page at the FTP site will load in and each file
and directory in the current directory will be displayed as a
link. 

3. TAB to (or use the search box to find) the directory you are
interested in and press ENTER on the link (links are underlined
and in blue). Then press ENTER on the desired file to download
it. 

4. You will be asked by Explorer whether to open the file or save
it to disk, so choose to save it to disk. 

5. You will be offered a filename to save it under but you can
change this if you wish by typing a more familiar one in,
preferably with the path to where you would like it to go, e.g.:

c:\webfiles\jfw35demo.exe 

assuming, of course, that you have already created a folder from
your C: drive called "webfiles".

If you want to use the winsock FTP program called WS_FTP, as your
FTP client software instead of Internet Explorer, download it
from:

ftp://papa.indstate.edu/winsock-l/ftp/ws_ftp.zip

You then unzip the file and use it by following the
instructions/help system that comes with it.

13.4. X:Drive Free Web Disk Space

You can obtain between 20 and 100 Mb of free virtual Web-based
disk space by signing up to X:Drive on the Net. You can then
upload files from any PC to this virtual disk and then download
them to another computer anywhere else in the world. It is
possible to make the data safe with passwords or make it freely
available to anyone else. This removes the need to copy and carry
data around on floppy or CD disks. You may access your files
using X:Drive's own interface or, with a small downloadable
program installed, access your X:Drive files by using Internet
Explorer as if they were on another disk drive on your own PC.

You can sign up with X:Drive at:

www.xdrive.com 

13.5. FTP-by-E-Mail

If your computer only has e-mail facilities and no FTP
capabilities, some sites provide FTP-by-mail, in which files can
be returned to you by e-mail, for example:

ftpmail@doc.ic.ac.uk (in Britain)

bitftp@pucc.princeton.edu (in America)

ftpmail@ieunet.ie (in Ireland)

Most files and programs you may wish to download from the Web,
including FTP files, are either zipped (compressed) self-
extracting files or standard compressed files. To decompress and
run a self-extracting file or program (which is likely to have
a .zip or .exe extension) just use the run command in Windows
95/98 and type the path to it or highlight it in Windows Explorer
and press ENTER. If the file is not self-extracting but just
compressed, you can use a DOS program called PKZIP to decompress
it. There is also a Windows version of PKZIP. You can also use
a compressing/decompressing program called Winzip. 

To download a copy of Winzip go to:

www.winzip.com/

and look for the download page and download links. Sometimes you
might find the program you are looking for under an "Evaluation"
link as well.

                           ********

                          >SECTION 14

         HOW TO FIND PEOPLE AND PLACES ON THE INTERNET

There are a number of avenues for locating people on the Net. Try
the following.

14.1. Search Engines

Use a "Search "engine" and in the search text box type the
person's name enclosed in double quotes, e.g.:

"James Watt"

and press ENTER on the submit button. If this person has their
own internet site, it should be found. Any e-mail address this
person has is likely to be displayed on their Web page.

14.2. Contacting the Domain Postmaster

If you know which e-mail provider someone has, you could e-
mail the Postmaster at that domain (domain being the part of the
e-mail address after the @ sign, e.g. @compuserve.com) giving the
individual's details and ask for the e-mail address. For
instance, you would e-mail to:

Postmaster@compuserve.com

The Postmaster is also the person you would e-mail if you were
having problems with your mailbox.

14.3. Searching through Usenet Newsgroups

If you know someone uses newsgroups, try using a program such
as Altavista to search for his name amongst Usenet newsgroups or
try www.dejanews.com.

14.4. Searching Online Directories

Try an online directory, which may or may not have the person
listed, such as www.four11.com and go to the e-mail search box.
You can also register your own e-mail address here if you wish
other people to be able to find you easily. 

You can also seek people at the following sites:
 
www.whowhere.com

www.internic.net/wp/whois.html--which particularly finds people
who have their own company sites on the 
Net.

www.hq.nasa.gov/x.500.html--for directories of phone and e-mail
listings for people in many countries.

                           ********

                          >SECTION 15

           DIFFERENT WAYS OF CONNECTING TO ACCOUNTS

Because all Windows Internet packages support winsock, Windows
users can mix the packages they use.  Good free and shareware
programs for connecting to the Net are:

15.1. PPP/SLIP Programs

Free-PPP--which you can download from www.rockstar.com/ppp.html

15.2. E-Mail Programs

Eudora Light--from www.eudora.com

Pegasus Mail--from www.pmail.com/.

Netscape Navigator/Communicator (with PPP connection, browser and
e-mailer)--from http://home.netscape.com

Microsoft Internet Explorer (with PPP connection, browser and
Outlook Express e-mailer/news reader)--from www.microsoft.com

15.3. Newsgroup Readers

Free Agent from www.forteinc.com

15.4. FTP file Up- and Download programs

There are many FTP upload and download programs available for
putting text, sound and video files onto the Internet, such as
uploading files to your own Website, if you have one, or for
downloading files from the Net to your computer.

15.4.1. General Overview

For example:

You can use ws_ftp--from www.ipswitch.com

And there is CuteFTP from--www.cuteftp.com

plus a good free FTP client is FTP Explorer from--www.ftpx.com

FTP Explorer is free to home (not business) users. It is the one
I would recommend for the basic use of screenreader/speech system
users because it is simple, easy to use and very transparent. You
can even go onto the FTP Explorer Website at:

www.ftpx.com

and subscribe to an FTP Explorer users' e-mail list to swap
experience, tips and ask for help from others on the list.
Everything in FTP Explorer is either accessible with shortcuts,
or via the menus or from within Tools, Options and the several
property sheets in here. You will have to know (or obtain from
your ISP) various details to set up the protocols and addresses
the same as with all FTP clients but after that you just view
things on the FTP server by TABBING through the three default
windows when working with it, i.e. the first window is the tree
view window where the directories/folders on a server are
displayed, the second window is the list of files in the folder
you have highlighted in window one and the third window is the
log window which shows a list of commands you have given and
whether they were carried out successfully or whether they
failed. 

15.4.2. Step by Step Example of how to use FTP Explorer

15.4.2.1. General
 
FTP Explorer is free for downloading and use at home by
individuals. FTP
stands for File Transfer Protocol. After you have created your
Web pages on your hard disk, you will have to find a method of
making them available to others. This could be via a domain of
your own running from your own computer or it could simply be
space on your ISPs server, which you may obtain free or at a
monthly or annual charge. An ISP which provides 10 Mb of free
server space for you to create your own Website is Onetel but
there are many other choices. The below provides basic details
about using FTP Explorer in relation to keeping your Website on
your ISPs server.
 
You can download FTP Explorer from:
 
http://www.ftpx.com
 
It's simple to use with a screenreader and is only about a 800
Kb download. 
 
15.4.2.2. Set-Up and Protocols

Installation of FTP Explorer is the normal Windows style and
you will also have to provide several pieces of information
before you can use FTP Explorer. Some of these will be of your
own choosing and others you may have to contact your site
provider to obtain. These are:
 
1. The host address, which is the address of your provider's
server, e.g. ftp.onetel.com.
 
2. A password of your own choosing.
 
3. A login username, which is likely to be of your own choosing. 
 
4. The "Initial Path" is any sub-directory off of the ISP
server's root directory which you may wish to be taken straight
to instead of going to the root first and then having to navigate
to your own sub-directory where your html files are kept, e.g.
/fromthekeyboard. But you do not have to do things in this way
if you do not want, as you can simply leave this field blank and
always land on the root directory/folder of your Website if you
prefer.
 
15.4.2.3. Uploading and Downloading Files
 
You use FTP Explorer by:
 
1. After setting up your password, login name and other
protocols, etc, when you first launch FTP Explorer from the
shortcut on your Desktop, you will be taken into the profiles,
settings, etc, dialogue and you can just press ENTER or ALT C to
go online and connect to your ISP. If this does not happen for
you, you can simply press CONTROL N to open the above dialogue
to go online.  
 
2. After logging on, you will be in the first of three windows,
which is the tree view window where you can arrow up and down
folders and open them if your site has more than one folder set
up on it. If you then press TAB you get to the second window
which has the list of individual files in it, which you can arrow
up and down and right and left in and view your individual .HTM
or .HTML files and other files, such as video and sound files,
e.g. index.htm, readme.htm, introsound.wav, etc. If you then
press TAB again to the third window, which is an information log
file window, this will tell you if your log on has been
successful, if your files have been displayed OK, if your uploads
have succeeded, etc.
 
3. When on your Website on your ISPs server (or anyone else's FTP
Website), pressing ENTER on
any .htm or other file will open a download dialogue and allow
you to download it to your specified download directory, e.g.
c:\website/, in my case (but any other folder you yourself prefer
or create for this purpose). You can also effect downloads by
pressing ALT F, W or ALT f, T.
 
4. To upload a single or multiple files, put focus on the folder
or sub-folder on the ISP server where you want the files to go
to and then press ALT F, followed by U. So, to upload to my site,
I would remain in the first window where the tree view is and
upload whilst in that view--you do not go to the files view in
the second window to do this.
 
5. An upload dialogue will open where you can type the path to
a single filename in or browse to it or several files to
highlight for uploading. After selecting the files, TAB to "Open"
and press ENTER. The page(s) or file(s) should only take a second
or two to upload,unless they are audio or video files when the
time factor will be longer. That's it!
 
Note: Sometimes your files will upload but, for some reason I
have not yet fathomed, the case of them will change. This would
mean that the links on your Web pages to your other pages would
not work. If this happens to you, when you are on your Website
with FTP Explorer in the above files view, after having uploaded
them, just go to each file, press F2 to open an editfield and
retype the correct filename in with the correct case lettering
and press ENTER to make the change. You will probably have to do
this with the filenames of all of your uploaded files.
 
6. If you wish to delete any given file on your Website, you just
go to it in window two and press the DELETE key followed by Y to
confirm. You would be best deleting such files in this way before
uploading new replacement files. To delete all files on your
site, highlight them with CONTROL A first and then press the DEL
key.
 
7. To end the session and come offline, press ALT T (for Tools)
and then D (for Disconnect), or to simply cancel a current
download press ALT T, C. You can also find files you know the
names of via the Tools menu, "Find" feature and there is also a
"Goto" option as well.
 
15.4.2.4. Configuration Tips
 
1. If FTP Explorer is not displaying the way you or your
screenreader would like, experiment in the several menus to see
what works best for you, e.g. press ALT V (for View) and try
changing the display from "Large Icons" to "Small Icons or vis-
versa ", changing to "List" or "Details" displaying of file
information, changing "Arrange Icons" from "Auto Arrange" to such
as by "Name" or by "Type", etc.
 
2. Do not forget the many option changes which can always be made
in a program's Options property sheets, i.e. press ALT V (for
View, O (for Options) and then TAB and CONTROL TAB through the
on/off options and selection lists and the six separate sheets
in here to make any fine-tuning choices for yourself.   

15.5. Chat programs

Try IRC (Internet Relay Chat)--from www.mirc.co.uk.

Many free and shareware Windows programs for e-mail, Net
browsing, chat and for reading newsgroups are downloadable from
the following sites: 

Forest Stroud's winsock applications site at www.stroud.com

The Tucows site at www.tucows.com

The Jumbo site at www.jumbo.com

The Shareware Com site at www. shareware.com

If you do not have access to the Internet you may be able to
download files from an FTP site such as:

FTP.keme.co.uk

FTP.simtel.com

If you have neither Internet nor FTP connections, try phoning
Onetel for their free ISP service (but you pay 1p a minute for
your call time) on 0800 9570778. 

Please note that the best-known and therefore most frequently
used Internet programs (such as Internet Explorer, Outlook
Express, Free Agent, Eudora, etc) will be most likely to be
supported by your screenreader having set files or script files
written for them, so it is advisable to make use of these rather
than lesser-known software--but you can always experiment, of
course.

                           ********

>APPENDIX 1

WHERE TO FIND MORE INTERNET INFORMATION

More information on various aspects of using the Internet can
be obtained via a number of resources. Below I list some of
particular interest.

16.1. From the Internet Itself 

Go to net.dummies.net

16.2. In Braille 

A Guide to the Internet and How to Access It, from the RNIB--A
free beginner's brief, non-technical overview of Internet
facilities. Phone: 0845 7023153.

Internet for Dummies, 1997, from the NLB, on 0161 494 0217--an
in-depth tour of the Internet from a screen and mouse-click
point of view (but a little out of date now).

Access-It, from the RNIB--a monthly specialist visually-
impaired oriented computer magazine in Braille. This is also
available on floppy disk and by e-mail.

Compute-It, from the RNIB--a braille monthly with standard
articles of interest to visually impaired people from a
collection of the mainstream PC magazines. This is also
available on floppy disk and by e-mail.  

16.3. On Cassette

Several PC magazines published monthly and recorded onto
cassette, floppy disk, downloadable files  and CD-ROM by
TNAUK are available, Tel: 01435 866102. Website:
www.tnauk.org.uk

A UK organisation produce a monthly C90 computer tape called
Talking Computers. Ted Martin runs it and is on e-mail 
     ted@pound.charitydays.co.uk.

Another UK C90 tape sponsored by Dolphin Access Systems but
produced independently by Simon Wilks is called The Whistler and
he is on: 020 84780673. 

16.4. By E-Mail 

The Microsoft Accessibility Update, From Microsoft--a periodic
access-related bulletin e-mailed to subscribed persons.
Registers for it by completing the online form at
www.microsoft.com/enable/news/subscribe-u.htm. However, they
suspended publishing this Accessibility Update in 2004 but may
resume its provision at some later date. To see what
accessibility news bulletins and articles Microsoft are currently
supplying, just go to:

www.microsoft.com/enable/news

A weekly US bulletin taken from the New York Times called Tech
Update is e-mailed to subscribers by Wil Smith. Wil can be
contacted at: e-mail wilsmith@iglou.com.

A monthly UK magazine bulletin available worldwide and sponsored
by the RNIB is called "Eaccess". You can register to receive it
free by sending an e-mail to: 

eab-subs@headstar.com

with 'subscribe eab' in the subject header.

********

>APPENDIX 2

LIST OF E-MAIL LISTS DEALING WITH
PARTICULAR TOPICS OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

17.1. List of VI-Related Lists and Examples of How to Subscribe
to Them

BASR-L--Discusses Web browser and screenreader accessibility
matters. To subscribe send an e-mail to:

listproc@trace.wisc.edu

Leave the subject line blank and in the body type:

subscribe basr-l firstname lastname

BCAB--UK Blind Computer Users' Association list. To subscribe
send an e-mail to:

majordomo@cs.man.ac.uk

Leave the subject line blank and in the body of the message
type:

subscribe bcab

AVIOS--This is the UK Association of Visually Impaired Office
Staff information and discussion list. They discuss telephony and
general UK office-worker-related topics.To join send a blank
message to:

avios-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Leave the subject line and the body of the message blank.

to Unsubscribe from the AVIOS list, send a blank message to:

avios-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com

To temporarily suspend AVIOS list messages so that you receive
none until you tell the list to start sending messages again,
e.g. for whilst you are on holiday, send a blank message to:

avios-nomail@yahoogroups.com

and to recommence receiving mail at a later date, send a blank
message to:

avios-normal@yahoogroups.com

Note: these subscribe, unsubscribe, nomail and normal commands
are universal for all lists on Yahoogroups, so if you know them
for one Yahoogroups list, you know them for them all.

audyssey--This is a dedicated games magazine for blind people.
To receive this e-mail magazine send an e-message to:

jmeddaug@cris.com

Leave the subject line blank and type in the body:

subscribe audyssey 

Blind-L--Deals with non-Windows computer issues. To join send
an e-message to:

listserv@uafsysb.uark.edu

and type in the body:

subscribe blind-l firstname lastname

Lookout--A list for users of the Lookout and Dual screenreader
and magnifier. It provides peer support and update information
for these packages. To subscribe send an e-mail to:

lookout-support-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

and leave the body of the message blank. 

blindwebbers--Provides discussion on and tips about creating
blind-friendly Internet Websites for both experienced and
learner visually impaired Web authors. To subscribe just send
a blank e-mail to:

blindwebbers-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

and leave the subject line and message body blank.

To contribute to the Blindwebbers discussions, send your
message to:

blindwebbers@yahoogroups.com

GUIspeak--Discusses Windows-related computer topics. To add
your name to the mailing list send an e-mail to:

listserv@listserv.nodak.edu

And in the body type:

subscribe guispeak firstname lastname

National Talking Express--Discusses matters arising from the UK
NTE monthly tape magazine. To subscribe just send a message to:

nteexpress-subscribe@smartgroups.com

and leave the subject line and body of the message blank.

Blind Attic--This is the US Blind Treasures trading, buying and
selling list for all types of goods, whether new or second-hand.

To subscribe to the Blind Attic list send an e-mail to:

blindattic-request@blindtreasures.com

If you want to advertise something for sale or request if someone
has something you want on the Blind Attic list, send your e-mail
to:

blindattic@blindtreasures.com

VIsector--A UK-based list for UK companies in the field of VI
commodities to post job vacancies to. To subscribe and receive
notice of these job vacancies send an e-mail to:

visector-request@ukvijobs.com

Leave the subject line blank and in the body of the message type:

subscribe visector jwjw@onetel.com

but, of course, do not type my e-mail address in, rather insert
your own address.

You cannot post messages to the VIsector list, only receive them
and then respond directly to the job vacancy advertiser. 

Blind-Chit-Chat--Provides a forum for blind people to have
informal discussions. You can subscribe by sending an e-mail
to:

blind-chit-chat-subscribe@egroups.com

Further examples of the format to use when subscribing to
mailing lists:

To subscribe to the JAWS discussion lists:

For UK residents, send a message to:

jaws-uk@freelists.org

and type:

Subscribe

in the Subject Line and leave the body of the message blank.

To suspend mail whilst away for a few days send a message to:

jaws-uk-request@freelists.org

and in the subject line type:

Vacation

When you return from holiday send to the same address the
following command:

unset vacation

To leave the jaws-UK list, send to:

jaws-uk-request@freelists.org

and type:

unsubscribe

in the subject line. 

If you wish to join the US JAWS list, send a blank message to:

jfwlite-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

and leave the rest of the message blank.

To subscribe to the UK Recycle-It second-hand computer equipment
and other items list send an e-mail to:

recycle-it-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

and add something like "Please add me to your list" in the
subject field and leave the body of the message blank.

To join the UK Access UK list for discussion on general
technology and other access-related issues, send a message to:

access-uk-request@freelists.org

Leave the message body blank and in the subject line type:

subscribe

To post a message on Access-UK, send your message to:

access-uk@freelists.org

To suspend mail or leave the Access UK list, use the same
commands as outlined above for the JAWS-UK list.

To find a mailing list on a particular topic you are
interested in and to subscribe, send an e-mail to:

listserv@listserv.net

and in the body of the message type, for example:

list global blindness

or

list global fishing

with the last word(s) being the subject you are interested in,
namely "blindness" or "fishing". In a few minutes you will
receive an e-mail telling you how to sign onto any lists which
Listserv have registered with them in respect of these topics.
Of course, this will only be a list of the available Listserv
lists and not any which are hosted by other providers like
Smartgroups, Yahoo!, Freelists, etc, so you will have to do
something similar (but probably not exactly the same) to get
lists from other providers.

17.2. Downloadable Comprehensive List of e-Mail Lists of Interest
to Visually Impaired People

There is a list of e-mail lists for you to peruse and find lists
which might interest you to join. This is at:

www.whitestick.co.uk

and you can find and download many more texts and programs from
this site as well.

********

>APPENDIX 3

LIST OF HUNDREDS OF GENERAL WEBSITES OF INTEREST

18.1. Recommended Sites to Visit

Many of the Websites in this appendix are repeats of those
mentioned in the main body of this tutorial, although many more
are only mentioned here and nowhere else. This appendix, however,
does not encapsulate every site which is alluded to in the above
sections. If you cannot find what you want here, search the main
body of the tutorial for it.

When entering one of the below Website URLs in to your Web
browser's Address Bar, type all characters and symbols
up to the two dashes (--), but do
not include the dashes. You do not usually need to type in the
prefix of an address (http://), as browsers automatically insert
this for you. 

The sites with an asterisk (*) at the end of their brief
description have been created with the screenreader in mind
for maximum accessibility. Most of the others should be found
to be reasonably accessible with a good screenreader.

Please remember that websites are appearing and disappearing
on the Internet all of the time. Some are frequently rewritten
and others change their URL from time to time. Additionally,
the sites at the top of this list are more likely to be
recently created than those towards the bottom.

www.direct.gov.uk--Provides an up-to-date and authoritative
Government information and advice site for all kinds of
Government information. You can find general details about such
matters as health, education, disabilities, etc. It has been
created with easy to see pages with as few as possible graphics
and has a search feature to find specific areas of interest
quickly. You can also go directly to certain areas of information
like disabilities and details for careers by going to
www.direct.gov.uk/disabilities (for matters like employment,
specialist equipment, social services, disability rights, etc)
and www.direct.gov.uk/carers.*

www.tpb.se--This site provides two free daisy book reading
programs. The most basic is called TPB Reader and is around a 12
Mb download or can be ordered on CD. The more advanced reader is
called Playback 2000 and is only available on CD due to its size.
This is a Swedish libraries site and you should go to the
"English" link near the top of the home page.* 

www.en.wikimedia.org--Holds the site of an impressive online
encyclopedia which is kept up to date and added to by volunteers.
This is one of the world's largest reference points and
encyclopedias.

www.savemoneynow.com--Is a site where you can compare prices and
obtain advice on making savings on household bills such as gas
and electricity.

www.wugnet.com/myspeed/speedtest.asp and www.numion.com--Are both
places where you can check your Internet connection speed and get
feedback on how efficiently it is working in your area and with
your own computer.

www.switchwithwitch.com--Is another prices comparison site but
this time mainly for phone providers. It also tells you how to
switch provider.

www.moneysupermarket.com--Lets you compare credit card interest
rates to get the best/lowest rates.

www.tradingstandards.gov.uk--Provides a Government site with
information about the UK postal and telephone preference service
to get onto the list so that you receive no or at least fewer
unwanted phone calls from advertisers and promoters and fewer
unsolicited junk mail letters.

www.travelmarket.com--A site where you can compare prices of
suppliers of travel tickets, holidays, and the like.

www.radiotimes.com--Provides a scfreenreader- and magnifier-
friendly service whereby you can view radio and TV times
programmes listings plus over 200 other radio and TV channel
programmes listings.*  

www.willdrafters.com--Is a site you can obtain advice about
writing a Will from and you can even make your own Will online.
Another such Will writing and advice service can be found at:
www.tenminutewill.co.uk.

www.freecycle.com--Provides a Website for people and companies
to advertise free gifts and offers available in such as the UK,
US and Canada. There is a "Free Stuff" link with items like
books, bags, theatre tickets, money off coupons, etc, available.
Goods are also available for sale on this site too. 

www.revealweb.org.uk--Here is the UK's National Library for the
Blind's Revealweb Website holding the names and details of many
UK organisations and individuals who provide accessible goods and
services for visually impaired people. 

www.vip-highstreet.com--From this consumer-orientated Website you
can jump from links to high street shops which themselves have
accessible shopping sites. There are links to supermarkets,
furniture shops, electrical and computer shops, etc, and there
is information pertaining to customer rights.*

www.applianceonline.co.uk--Is a shopping site where you can
purchase many different types of home appliance, such as cookers
and washing-machines, often at prices significantly lower than
high street shops. 

www.kelkoo.co.uk--Is another shopping price comparison site from
which you can check UK shop prices and buy items. and 

www.manybooks.net--Is a site where you can both find free books
to download and links to other similar sites from which to obtain
free books.

www.cinebench.com--Allows you to download a free computer
benchmarking program to run and find out the efficiency of the
most important parts of your PC such as processor and memory to
see if it has any running problems, bottle-necks and parts which
could do with upgrading, etc.

www.fotopic.org--This is where you can sign up for 250 Mb of
spare Internet storage space for your photographs.

www.websightuk.org--Hosts a site for VI persons which provides
information of interest to blind people, holds reviews and
permits you to hear online features such as the UK Soundings tape
magazine.*

www.apple.com/podcasting--This is where you can view an online
tutorial to learn how to create and listen to podcasts. A podcast
is a broadcast on any topic they like either made by a
corporation or private individual and posted on the Net for
anyone else to download and listen to. They are usually posted
as compressed files, such as in MP3 format.

www.processtext.com--Provides a site where you can download
several programs which are designed to convert many types of
files to other formats, including converting Adobe PDF files to
other formats such as MS Word.

www.cbfsms.com--Is where you can access a free computer to mobile
phone text messaging service.

www.tafn.org.uk/audio.htm--This is a radio guide from where you
can listen to a range of on-demand BBC, general independent UK
and also some international radio stations from one site. There
is no subscription and the site also has zoom facilities on each
page for screen magnification.*

www.medterms.com/script/main/hp.asp--Provides an online
dictionary of medical terms and symptoms.

www.talkingproducts.co.uk/index_text.htm--Supplies information
about many of the talking gadgets and other products which might
be of use to visually impaired people.*

www.yrguk.com/entertainment/jungle--Provides a speech-enabled and
blind-friendly jungle adventure game. The main site at
www.yrguk.com also carries several other blind-friendly games and
information links.*

www.yrguk.com--Contains an audio news, radio station etc, site
specially created for blind users. You can get results without
having to navigate Web pages, just by pressing specific numbers
on your keyboard.* 

www.webformator.com--Is where you can download a free Web page
formatting program called Webformator to make Web pages more
accessible to blind people. It works with all screenreaders and
can deal with pages containing Flash 6 and also pages with tables
on them. You will need IE5.01 or higher and Windows 98 or
higher.* 
www.gamesfortheblind.com--Provides a chat facility called
Accessible Chat free of charge. This features a special
speech-friendly interface you can access via JFW or Window-
Eyes for visually impaired people to engage in type-talk
chatting in a manageable environment.*  

www.moneyspider.com--Contains free information for ISA investors.

www.themillionweb.com/demos--Here is where you can download a
demo of a screenreader-friendly version of the Millionaire quiz
game.

www.callcredit.co.uk, www.equifax.co.uk and www.experian.co.uk--
Are all sites where UK residents can check their own personal
credit worthiness files and discover their standing and, perhaps,
get an idea if anyone else has tried to use your personal details
illegally to obtain such as credit cards, loans, etc and given
you a bad record.

www.upmystreet.com--Allows you to enter your UK post code (or
anyone else's) and then receive lots of information about that
area, e.g. the name of the local M.P., whereabouts of local take-
ways, restaurants, etc.

www.kitchensinc.net--This provides a site where you can download
free gaming software which is speech enabled for visually
impaired people, e.g. monopoly, quiz games, casino games, etc.

www.sightconnections.com--Is a site created by a visually
impaired person to facilitate the use of over 250 e-mail
discussion lists for visually impaired people plus many Internet
radio stations. It features Europe's only radio station
specifically for blind people, which is called VIP On Air.*

www.chpi.org/whatsnew.html--Is the url from which to download a
braille translator called "XML2BRL". It converts either XML or
TXT files to embossable Braille or Braille which can be then read
on a Braille display and is freeware. It only works on Linux-
based computers but a Windows version is due out soon.*

www.aprompt.ca--Provides a place to download a Web page
accessibility repair tool called A-Prompt to find problems with
Website accessibility and take the Web Master through how to fix
them step by step.* 

www.adaptech.org--This site permits you to view and download a
selection of free and low-cost adapted software packages for
visually impaired people, such as screen magnifiers, OCRs and
text-to-speech programs but some of these are only available in
the French language. Go to the "Downloads" link to get to the
list of software.*

www.aida32.hu--Provides a Web-based utility which can tell you
how much RAM you have in your computer and what type of RAM and
speed it is. It will also advise you if you have any free RAM
memory slots on your motherboard.

www.phonedirectorysearch.com/internat.htm--Is a source for
obtaining international phone numbers. Many listings are in
English but some are in their countries native language. 

www.lastminute.com--Is the location to find last-minute, cheap
travel tickets for flights and holidays.
www.tesco.com/access--This is the online shopping site for the
Tesco supermarket, from where you can choose your goods and then
have them delivered. This link has been made specially accessible
for screenreader users.*

www.centralwebs.co.uk/links/books.html--Is a Web page from which
you can download a number of free book texts, view online
references and also the site contains a free text to speech
reading program.

www.saynoto0870.com--This site features a very handy way of
discovering the cheaper, geographical numbers to companies which
only provide non-geographic numbers for customers, such as 0870
and 0845 numbers. You can thereby find alternative numbers to
ring (if they exist and have been registered with the site) which
will cost you significantly less to call per minute. You just
activate the "Search" link and either type in your required
company name or the company's 0870 number to find if an
alternative geographic number is known. You can also contribute
to the service by adding companies and numbers you yourself know
but which the site has not yet had registered. 

www.sightconnections.com--Provides a Web page with links to
around 47 streaming radio stations and 2 TV streams from
Australia.

www.oneformat.com--Since September 2003, has been making
available a way of overriding a Web designer's choice of colour,
print size and font and background images by providing a Website
where users can create and download their own style sheets. These
style sheets can then link to a Web browser for use on other
Websites.

http://en.wiipedia.org--Is the site for a free encyclopedia which
is not especially for blind people but can be used quite
successfully.

www.moneyfacts.co.uk--Which provides a site to view many
financial organisations' offerings in accounts, bonds, mortgages,
interest rates, etc. You can also find out this type of
information at www.news.ft.com and at www.fsa.gov.uk.

www.jungle.com--A site from which you can make online
commodities purchases, such as music Cds, computer software
and hardware, mobile phones, PC games, electrical goods and
much more. Sign up for their weekly newsletter near the top of
their home page.  

www.disabledworkers.org--Is where you can find information about
disabled workers in given fields in your locality if you need one
of them to do work for you and where you yourself can register
on the database for inclusion as a disabled worker if you
qualify.

www.sports.com--Gives Net access to a great wealth of sports
information.

www.ihavemoved.com--Provides a site on which, if you have just
changed address, you can have everyone who needs to know
automatically advised of your new address. Your new details will
be passed on to the people/organisations you tell it to advise
at no charge, e.g. banks, utility companies, clubs, friends, etc.

www.ebooklocator.com--Provides a searching site to help find
details of book titles published in e-book format. It contains
details on many thousands of e-books published by over 400
publishers.

www.sortit.org.uk--This is a newly created RNIB Website aimed
at the 11 to 16 age group, containing general information,
details on leisure subjects, teenage magazine availability,
etc.*  

www.royalmail.com/access--Provides an accessible equivalent of
the Royal Mail's general Website. It meets with Bobby standards.
You can access all kinds of postal-related information and supply
an address in order to be given the post code which pertains to
that address*

www.home.earthlink.net./~blindworld--Features an American site
specialising in blindness issues, such as news, medication, blind
sports, blindness research, products and gadgets for the blind,
and the like.*

www.telediscount.co.uk--Is a UK company which provides a Website
through which you can make cheap phone calls abroad without
having to register with them or put money up front to use them.
You just log onto the site, open up a list of about 150 phone
call destination countries, view what the charge will be and then
type in the abroad phone number you wish to ring. You can obtain
standard (non-mobile) calls for the cost of UK local calls or
less. 

www.uswitch.com--Provides a UK energy price comparison service
to find out where to get the best gas, electricity, phone bill,
etc, suppliers.

www.eyes2eyes.com--Is a site run by a visually impaired American
providing blind-related information about such matters as
personal, employment, medical, safety and vision issues. Visitors
can submit articles and tips and post messages to others.*

www.allexperts.com--Provides a large Website where you can select
a topic and ask any questions of an expert by activating an e-
mail link and typing in your query. The expert, who will be a
volunteer and a real live person, will e-mail the answer back to
you. They have experts on just about any topic you can imagine.

www.audiobooksforfree.com--Provides a download site where books
can be obtained for free.

www.saveonyourbills.co.uk--Gives you access to comparative
information about goods, services and utility providers to check
if you are getting the best value for money with your current
providers. This type of information can also be obtained at
www.ukpower.co.uk and www.energywatch.org.uk.

www.handybits.com/shredder.htm--Is a Web page from which you can
download a free file shredder, i.e. a small program which does
the same for computer files that an office shredder does for hard
copy paper. Shredded files can then not be recovered by
unauthorised persons (or yourself) and reinstated and viewed on
your PC.

www.accessplace.com--Is a daily updated site of over 4,000 links
to other sites in over 300 categories. Its a quick way to find
what you want and then intuitively and easily select and be taken
to any of them.

www.blindtreasures.com--This is a US site specifically for blind
people to auction just about anything, not just IT equipment. For
more information and how to use it, just surf to the site and
look around.

http://onlineshop.rnib.org.uk--Hosts the UK RNIB Internet
shopping site to purchase VI adapted goods and services.

www.disabledgo.info--Houses a site for people with sensory
impairments where info on accessible places like pubs,
restaurants and theatres can be found in many towns and cities.
How to get there, etc, is given and the cities/places listed are
being added to continually. If you want to give them details of
an accessible venue you have discovered, do so via their e-mail
address of: feedback@disabledgo.info.

www.grabameal.co.uk--Contains online menus for foodstuffs by food
type/region. 

www.meru.org.uk/speechmakers/powertalk.html--Is the download URL
for a free MS Powerpoint speech API to verbalise what is on the
screen when using Powerpoint. It is called Powertalk and is a 2.5
Mb download.

www.topica.com--Hosts a large number of features, such as e-
mail and tips on how to use common software programs, e.g.
Word 2000, Access 97, etc. You can sign up free and then
select the information categories which interest you from the
"Tips World" link.

www.everyhit.com--Provides a fast-moving, up-to-date site on
which you can ask questions about music and obtain answers, such
as obtaining a list of any particular artist's single hits and
the dates they were hits on. You can also do many other searches
for details on albums, tracks, artists, etc, to find facts.

ftp://ftp.mindspring.com/users/n8kl/nfbtr767.zip--Is the URL to
download Version 7.67 of the free American Grade 2 Braille
translation software. You can also download this free translation
package plus a Windows user interface program called Wintrans
from: www.wintrans-bt.org.   

www.ispreview.co.uk--Contains reviews of different Internet
service providers to help you choose the best one for you. 

www.archive.org--Houses the Wayback Machine which is a web
trawling and archiving program which takes a mirror image of the
internet every two months and saves this as a kind of historic
record or Internet library. To find a site as it was on a given
day, you provide the URL of the site you want and from the table
provided select the date you would like to go back to to obtain
a copy of that site on that particular day. 

www.expita.com--Supplies a site where you can read much
information about accessing the Internet by e-mail. It is the
Access by Mail Website known as "accmail".

www.e-accessibility.com--Provides a Website and monthly
newsletter for VI persons, jointly supported by RNIB, NLB and
GDB.*

www.bookshare.org--Provides for US citizens an online community
for scanning and sharing copyrighted books legally. Any book
scans can be submitted for sharing by e-mailing the recognised
scan and (preferably) the image scan. To obtain instructions on
how to join, submit and discover what books are available for you
to download send an e-mail to*:

volunteer@bookshare.org

www.192.com--Is the best site to find anyone in the UK. It
searches databases of all phone books and electoral registers
in the country.

www.thefreesite.com--Provides one of the best Websites for
locating freebies, whether promotional items, gifts by
competition or computer software.

www.jetform.com--Is where you can view and purchase a copy of an
online and offline electronic forms completion program for VI
people. It is called Verbal-Eyes and works with JFW 3.5 and
Window-Eyes 3.1 upwards.

http://validation.nlb-online.org--Holds over 70 high-quality
reference resources, by three different providers, such as the
Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Britain, Hansard and the Good Bed and
Breakfast Guide. This same site also features a link to another
reference resource called X-Refer with information available from
Penguin Dictionary of Business, Dictionary of Law, Dictionary of
Wine, Penguin Encyclopedia of Places, Collins Concise Dictionary
of Quotations, Dictionary of British History, Penguin Dictionary
of Psychology, Bloomsbury Dictionary of Contemporary Slang, New
Brove Dictionary of Jazz, Dictionary of Shakespeare, Compact
American Dictionary of Computer Words, etc. There is also the
AEBSCO UK Reference Centre with over 300 full text archive
newspapers and magazines such as BBC Gardener's World, the
Economist, The New Scientist, Computer Weekly, The Guardian, The
Rolling Stone, and the like.  For more information and to get a
username and password, phone Una Regan at the NLB on 0161 3552083
or e-mail to
una.regan@nlbuk.org.

www.redwhiteandblue.org/news/bonsmenu.htm--Hosts a site where you
can find links to other blindness related sites and advertise and
review accessibility products. You can also join the BONS (Blind
Online News Service) weekly e-mail news letter which also
contains links to other Websites with blindness-related subject
matter.* 

www.howitworks.com--Is a site providing information of an IT
nature, plus educational facts and coverage of PC games.

www.gamesfortheblind.com--Is a blind-friendly site providing
specialist games for the blind and a chat room called Accessible
chat.*

www.xe.com/ucc/--Contains a facility for you to type in a
currency and have it converted into its up-to-date equivalent in
another currency.

www.tlorimer.btinternet.co.uk--Is where you can download several
useful free and shareware programs, e.g. download managers, MP3
players, Web search engines, etc. It is maintained by Tom Lorimer
who is himself blind. He has also created and made available a
HTML Web page creation tutorial which can be downloaded.* 

www.blindhelp.comThis is where you can find a link to a messenger
program which reads incoming messages. This program is called
Talking Messenger.
 
http://pages.sprint.ca/radioclicks/files/default.htm--This is
where you can find a screenreader-friendly radio and vide
stations playing site with media from dozens of countries and
hundreds of stations.*

www.register.co.uk--This is the UK information technology site
to obtain up-to-date IT information specific to this topic.

www.screenreader.co.uk--Contains a free Web page rendering
program called Webbie for download. This makes Web pages easier
to work with for some screenreader users by presenting the page
like a word-processor document.

www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/en/download--Is the
Microsoft page where you can download a free copy of the latest
version of MS Windows Media Player and other media-related
software.

www.drivershq.com--Contains links to every PC equipment
manufacturer in the world, e.g. to download up-to-date
drivers.

http://members.fortunecity.com/mhunkin/marval_man/index.html--
Holds information on blind-related topics, accessibility
information and links to music and entertainment stations (US
based).*

www.speedbit.com--A Website from which you can download a program
called Download Accelerator to help speed up your downloads,
allow you to recommence a cut off download, etc. 

www.morganauctions.co.uk--Is an Internet-based auction house for
computer and some other electrical goods.

www.shopsmart.com--Provides a place to search for best prices for
goods.

www.enablelink.com--Hosts information about disability aides,
such as magnifiers and screenreaders.

www.enablemart.com--This is another site for disabled people to
access information, find out about screenreading programs,
magnifiers and much more.

www.audio-tips.com--Is the site of the 1-step vocal e-mail
program for those who prefer to speak and hear e-mail.

www.seti-search.com--Is where you can go to operate a Web-based
 search engine which was written to be used by blind people. 

www.bfmsoft.com/--Here you can find a useful shareware program
named CD Wizard to play your CDs with and go onto the Net to
search for information on that CD.  

www.airoboform.com--Is the site of a freeware online automatic
forms completion program.

www.dictionary.com--Hosts an American online dictionary for
free use. If you use the URL www.dictionary.com/translate you can
get languages translated for you.

www.microsoft.com/enable/products/keyboard/keyboardsearch.asp--Is
where you can find lists of keyboard shortcuts for
Microsoft products all in one place.

www.webopedia.com--This is an Internet-based encyclopedia of
computer-related information and support.

www.thescreenreader.org.uk--Provides a regularly updated FAQ file
with answers to numerous questions about HAL in zip, text and
HTML formats.*

www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/compass--Contains a text-only page
for browsing masses of historic, archaeological, and so forth,
information held at the British Museum. The home page has a
text-only link and screenreader and Braille display users,
plus the ability to change font size, colour, style, etc, for
partially sighted people.* 

www.192enquiries.com--Lets you search for business phone numbers.
You can search on countries, towns, do a national search, search
by trade group, etc. 

http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books/lists.html--Lists over
12,000 English language books for free reading as full text on
the Net. These texts have been compiled by the University of
Pensylvania.

www.recipeweb.co.uk--Provides cooking recipes from top UK
chefs and nutritional advice. The ingredients, method and
equipment needed are clearly listed. You can add a recipe to
your online recipe book, e-mail a selected recipe to a friend
or have it print out for you. 

www.useit.org.uk--Hosts information and links to Internet
shopping, online texts, accessibility subjects, radio ham
information, and so forth.*

www.wingletang.com--Is a new site created especially for the
use of visually impaired computer users. It has links to other
sites of accessibility interest and is maintained by the hosts
of the Whistler computer tape magazine.* 

www.windrivers.com--Boasts the Web's largest collection of
drivers for all device types. It has a driver installation
help link and you can register for their e-mail newsletter.

www.download.com--Permits the free download of numerous
freeware and shareware programs.

www.amazon.co.uk--This is the site of an Internet-only shop,
selling books, CDs, videos, and the like, which has an impressive
selection. It has a text only link in the preferences at the
bottom of the home page.*

www.audiotips.com--Offers a voice chat room so that you can
chat without having to use the keyboard. You will need a
suitable sound card and microphone.

www.forteinc.com--This is where you can download the very useful
and keyboard-friendly newsgroups reader called Free Agent from.
 
www.bigfoot.com--Is a service which provides a way to search for
people and also gives permanent free e-mail addresses and sends
e-mail from your Bigfoot address to your e-mail account.

www.toad.net/~quinnbf--Is a site where a speech-friendly,
Windows-based American football game can be downloaded from.

www.acbradio.org/--Contains on stream radio listening
programmes and blindness-related stories and information. The
National Talking Express monthly magazine can also be listened
to from this site.*

http://bobby.watchfire.com--Provides a Website checker which will
check
the accessibility of sites for you and Webmasters in order to
effect improvements for screenreader users.*

www.webwasher.com--Allows you to download a free program
called "Webwasher" which blocks or disables cookies. This will
block advertising cookies but not those from sites which you
might want a cooky from.

www.mailwasher.com--Is the download URL for a good shareware e-
mail cleaning program which allows you to eliminate spam and
other types of unwanted e-mail. 

www.rnib.org.uk/library--Where Braille, large print and tape
book readers can enjoin in joint discussions about these,
where there are book reviews from around the world, new book
releases, regular literature competitions, and the like.*

www.efax.com--Is a site where you can register and be given a
number to receive online Faxes. The Fax you are sent goes to
your ISP server and is then appended as an attachment to an e-
mail message for downloading to your PC together with the rest
of your e-mail messages.

www.digalo.com--This is a French site which offers what is
said to be a good quality English SAPI software speech
synthesiser for only around 29.00. Other languages are also
available and you can download MP3 files of the speech to
check for quality and suitability.

www.reelbooks.com--Permits the online purchase of over 60,000
book titles and belongs to Columbia Lighthouse for the Blind
in Washington USA.*

www.realnetworks.com--Is where you can download several software
utilities from the Realnetworks site, such as the Realaudio
Player program.

www.music635.co.uk--Hosts up-to-date pop music news and single
and album reviews. 

www.flatline.org.uk/silas--Provides an access gateway for blind
and partially sighted surfers which converts Web pages into more
usable formats.*

www.spaceports.com/~mprobert/access/index.html--This is the
site of an online British encyclopedia which is mainly text-
based and easy to use from the keyboard. Mr Probert's
encyclopedia can also be downloaded from:

www.wilma.co.uk/book.html for free personal use.*

www.netlingo.com--Provides an Internet language dictionary to
help you understand Net terminology.

www.bbc.co.uk/education/betsie/--Contains much educational and
general BBC-related information and reviews and also the
Betsie program which can be used by programmers to make
Websites that are easier for visually impaired people to
access.*

csun.edu/cod/--Contains a "Virtual Exhibition Hall" with links
to all the previous year's CSUN accessible software and
hardware exhibitors sites. Just navigate to the "Virtual
Exhibition Hall" or About COD" link and press ENTER.*

www.deja.com--Is a facility to search for online news
information.

www.alltheweb.com--Is a very prolific meta-search engine which
runs on the Web rather than on your hard disk.

www.tipworld.com--Is a source of computer and Net reference
material.

www.askjeeves.com--Is the site of a question-based Web search
engine.

www.sitesforwomen.com/--Contains several topics of interest to
women in general, such as shopping, cookery, consumer rights,
etc.

www.ferretsoft.com--Hosts a suite of very useful utilities,
downloadable free, such as the Ferret search engine and Ferret
chat room finder.  

www.mudhut.co.uk--Features new music and new groups and
contains a selection of downloadable music from new bands. 

www.prodworks.com--Is the Productivity Works site containing
their dedicated speech-assisted Web browser called PWWebspeak.*

www.dolphinuk.co.uk--This is the Dolphin Computer Access
company's Website with company information and a free DOS
screenreader called HAL Lite for download.*

www.freeloader.com--Is another site for downloading many
programs and utilities for free.

www.web.csd.scarolina.edu/bck2skol/bck2skol.html--Is a site
providing lessons for people new to the Internet.

www.freestuffcentre.co.uk free software download site.

www.annmorris.com--Is the US Ann MorrisEnterprises site where
specialist equipment for the blind can be purchased.*

www.cdnow.com--Is another Internet shop selling CDs which is US-
based.

www.fergusonenterprises.com--Provides the same type of service
as Ann Morris above.*

www.freebies4u.co.uk--Free download site for programs,
utilities, demos, drivers, etc.

www.highstreetcentral.co.uk/free.htm--Houses a directory of
free download software sites.

www.cs.queensu.ca/faqs/email/finding.html--Holds information on
numerous avenues of Web search techniques.

www.doherty71.freeserve.co.uk/yorkblind.htm--Is the York Blind
and Partially-Sighted Society's website cataloguing many
accessible attractions in the historic city of York. You can
take a virtual walk along York's Bar Wall.*

www.empowermentzone.com--Deals with many net and general
software accessibility issues and holds a number of
accessibility related files.* 

www.four11.com--Hosts a search tool to find companies and their
addresses. 

www.zdjournals.com/w9p/9702/w9p9723.htm--Holds a thorough
document about how to set up multi-boot computer systems.

www.rnib.co.uk--Is the RNIBs Web page with news, services,
etc.*

www.wrn.org/audio.html--Provides a list of available audio
books.

www.cheapflights.com--Acts as a filter for people looking for
bargain air flights, holidays, holiday insurance, etc, and can
send you periodic e-mail showing last-minute bargains.

www.go-fly.com--Is the site of an Internet flights booking
company called "Go".

www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk--This is a new site which went online in
December 1999 which permits surfers to address health-related
questions. It meets the accessibility criteria set down in the
WAI standard.*

www.gwmicro.com--GWMicro's Window-Eyes screenreader site.*

www.kurzweiledu.com/kurzweil1000.html--Is where you can browse
information about the Kurzweil OCR system and download a copy
of the Kurzweil 1000 user manual.*

www.dss.gov.uk/ba/index.htm--Contains benefit and other
Benefits Agency information.

www.thevillas.demon.co.uk--This is a site where second-hand
specialist computer equipment can be bought and sold.

www.officialdocuments.co.uk/uk.htm--Is the site of HMSO (now
called the Stationery Office), where Hansard, Acts of
Parliament and budget documents can be read and downloaded.

www.henrichsen.org--Hosts many blind-friendly games and
programs of interest for downloading.*

www.scansoft.com--Contains downloadable software, including
the 1998 version of the Textbridge OCR program for free.

www.microsoft.com/enable/--Contains information and software
for people with access needs.*

www.gutenberg.net--Holds over 6,200 book texts for free
download whose copyrights have expired.

www.soundlinks.com/accessit.exe--This is the downloadable
archive of the "Access IT" magazine from the RNIB with back
copies up to the last three months. It is also where you can buy
a copy of the IBM Home Page Reader from in the UK.*

www.hoover.com--Is where you can search for companies, obtain
share values, etc.

www.convertafile.com--Is a site which can upload a file of
yours and then convert it into any of 70 different formats for
you. It then downloads it to you a few minutes later in the
new format.

www.mp3.com--Is a popular MP3 file (music) site where you can
download free music tracks and also obtain free MP3 playing
software, such as Winamp. FAQs and technical information are
also available.

www.wyfiwyg.com--Contains access technology for sale plus
newsletters and computer information for the visually
impaired.*

www.netcore.ca/~imagic/--Provides talking books on line.

www.google.co.uk--Provides an online meta-search engine which
intelligently searches and lists its hits in order of
importance/frequency of occurrence.

www.inlandrevenue.gov.uk--Is the Inland Revenue's Website for
tax information and to read and download tax forms.

www.thisismoney.com/--This is a site containing information in
respect of financial matters, stocks and shares, etc.

www.yahoo.com--Is the site of the well-known Yahoo standard Web
search engine. 

www.nexttage.com--This is a site where you can buy and sell
anything (not just VI equipment) without going through the
auction process. You state what you want to buy and how much
you are prepared to pay and if any supplier is interested in
selling at that price, he will e-mail you about this.

www.winzip.com/--This is the site to download a copy of the
famous Winzip software compression and decompression software.

www.zdnet.com--Contains a safe site to buy software and
download shareware and demos. It contains numerous things,
such as holiday specials, PC sales, software, share investing,
driver downloads, online shopping of all kinds, etc.

www.freedomscientific.com--Henter-Joyce/Freedom Scientific's
screenreader and magnifier Website.

www.hotbraille.com--Contains a free Braille transcription
service of up to 4 Braille pages. Your print copy will be
translated and then posted free anywhere in the world.

www.microsoft.com/enable/training/tips-u.htm--Is where a
useful tips file is stored for disabled users of Internet
Explorer.*

www.itreviews.co.uk/maillist.htm--Will get you onto the
mailing list of a site which is speech-friendly and holds many
up-to-date software and hardware reviews. You can also
register for a regular e-mail letter.

www.assist.com--Is a site with good information in respect of
assistive technology.*

www.dti.gov.uk, www.homeworking.com and www.smarterwork.com
are all sites containing valuable information for the self-
employed.

www.internic.net/wp/whois.html--Provides listings of Internet
domain owners and associated information.

www.jokerdog.com--Contains some free access games for use with
JFW.

www.futureforms.com--Is the place to find a Web forms reading
and completion program for visually impaired persons.*

www.indexbraille.se--Is a Website where you can obtain a free
download of a Braille translation program for Index embosser
owners. You must provide your Index embosser serial number.*

www.raging.com--Hosts an online Web search tool.

www.sunsite.berkeley.edu/alex/Where you can find a catalogue
of on line electronic books.

www.tucows.com--Holds thousands of files and software programs
for free download.

www.stroud.com--Same type of site as Tucows above.

www.thtech.mit.edu/shakespeare/works.html--Is where you can
find the complete works of William Shakespeare online.

www.fsa.gov.uk/consumer-help--Offers advice on avoiding
financial fraudsters and answers many of the commonest
financial questions. It is run by the Financial Services
Authority.

www.enablelink.com--Enablelink is a Website run by De Witt and
Associates solely about blindness issues. It covers
technology, family life, reviews, assistive software and
hardware sales, etc, and aims to create an online community.* 

www.altavista.com--Another Web-based online standard Web search
engine.

www.companies.online.com--Is where you can find information on
lists of companies.

www.nyise.org/whatsnew.htm--Covers Internet-related topics
specific to visually impaired people.*

www.wordweb.com--Is a speech-friendly Web-based dictionary and
thesaurus. This is free of charge and you can obtain Window-
Eyes set files for this from www.gwmicro.com

www.screaming.net--A UK site where you can obtain a free ISP and
charge-free Internet surfing.

www.teddy.fcc.ro--Provides a Downloads link where, amongst other
things, you can obtain a free file called Advanced PDF Password
Recovery which removes all passwords on PDF files so that you can
unlock and read them with the Adobe Acrobat Reader or any other
software able to convert PDF files to other formats.

18.2. Website Resources Accessible by E-Mail 

Below are a couple of resources which you can access without
going onto a Website, rather by directly e-mailing them.

To access an e-mail database of thousands of online cooking
recipes send an e-mail to:

recipes@recipebyemail.com

and in the subject line put the type of food you want specific
lists of recipes on, e.g. pork. You will receive back in a few
minutes a list of numbered pork recipe titles. When you have
decided which recipe you would like to try, send another e-mail
to:

recipes@recipebyemail.com

and on the subject line just type in the recipe number you want.
The recipe will be e-mailed back to you within seconds.

To convert a PDF file to a text file, attach the
PDF file to an e-mail message and send it to:

pdf2txt@adobe.com

After which it will be returned to you by e-mail converted.

Note: Since the end of 2002 Adobe's Acrobat Reader 5.1 has been
available and Acrobat 6 has also been released in 2004. These
have been written in conjunction with some screenreader
manufacturers so that it will render and read PDF files correctly
and easily with a screenreader, e.g Window-Eyes 4.1.

To obtain a copy of Acrobat 5.1 go to the download page of:

www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/alternate.html

By the time you come to use the above-mentioned pdf2txt
conversion service, it is very likely that it will have been
discontinued because of the additional conversion abilities of
Acrobat 5.1 and 6X. 

********

>APPENDIX 4

KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS IN INTERNET EXPLORER,
OUTLOOK EXPRESS AND FREE AGENT

The following list of keyboard shortcuts may be useful for
revision purposes or as a means of quick reference. The left-
hand side of the two dashes below shows the keystrokes to
press and the right-hand side of the dashes shows the effect
of the shortcut.   

19.1. Internet Explorer 5, 5.5 and 6

F1--Displays Internet Explorer help or gives context sensitive
help when on an item in a dialogue box.

F5--Refresh the current Web page.

F6--Moves you forward between frames.

F11--Toggles between full screen and normal browser window
view.

UP ARROW--Moves you towards the beginning of the document.

DOWN ARROW--Moves you towards the end of a document.

END--Move to the end of a document.

ENTER--Activate a selected link.

ESCAPE--Stop downloading a page.

HOME--Move to the beginning of a document.

PAGE UP--Move towards the beginning of a document in large
increments.

PAGE DOWN--Move towards the end of a document in larger
increments.

SPACEBAR--Marks or unmarks a checkbox.

TAB--Moves forward through the items on a Web page, the
address bar and the links bar.

ALT DOWN ARROW--Opens a drop-down listbox.

ALT RIGHT ARROW--Takes you to the next page.

ALT LEFT ARROW--Takes you to the previous page.

ALT HOME--Takes you to your home page.

ALT D--Takes you to the address bar. 

CONTROL CLICK--In History or Favourites bars, open multiple
folders.

CONTROL D--Adds the current page to your Favourites Menu.

CONTROL E--Open search in Explorer bar.

CONTROL F--Find on this page.

CONTROL H--Open history in Explorer bar.

CONTROL I--Open Favourites in Explorer bar.

CONTROL L--Go to a new location.

CONTROL N--Open a new window.

CONTROL P--Print the current page.

CONTROL S--Save the current page.

CONTROL TAB--Moves you forward through frames on a Website with
frames.

CONTROL W--Close the current window.

CONTROL SHIFT TAB--Moves you back between frames.

SHIFT F10--Displays a shortcut menu for a link.

SHIFT TAB--Moves backwards through the items on a Web page.

19.2. Outlook Express 5, 5.5 and 6

Shortcut keys can be used to select commands and navigate
through the Preview Window and the Message Window. The
following shortcuts apply to both e-mail and newsgroups unless
otherwise indicated.

Main Window, View Message Window and Send Message Window:

F1--Opens help topics.

F5--Refreshes news messages and headers.

ALT ENTER--Views the properties of a selected message.

CONTROL >--Takes you to the next message in the list.

CONTROL <takes you to the previous message in the list.

CONTROL A--Selects all messages.

Main Window and View Message Window:

DEL--Deletes a message.

CONTROL F--Forwards a message.

CONTROL I--Takes you to your Inbox.

CONTROL L--Toggles between show and hide the folders list.

CONTROL M--Sends and receives e-mail.

CONTROL N--Opens a new window or posts a new message.

CONTROL P--Prints the selected message.

CONTROL R--Reply to the message author only.

CONTROL U--Takes you to the next unread e-mail message.

CONTROL Y--Takes you to the folders list.

CONTROL SHIFT B--Opens the address book.

CONTROL SHIFT E--Opens the create new folder dialogue box.

CONTROL SHIFT R--Replies to all who received the original
message.

CONTROL SHIFT G--Replies to all in newsgroups only.

CONTROL SHIFT U--Takes you to the next unread news
conversation.

Main Window:

ENTER--Opens a selected message for viewing in the View
Message Window..

LEFT ARROW OR - (minus)--Collapses a news conversation and
Expands a news conversation showing all
responses.

RIGHT ARROW OR +--Expands a news conversation showing all
responses.

TAB--Moves between the Folders Window, Message Window, Preview
Window and your contacts Address Book Window.

CONTROL ENTER--Marks a message as read.

CONTROL J--Takes you to the next unread newsgroup or folder.

CONTROL W--Go to a newsgroup.

CONTROL SHIFT A--Marks all news messages as read.

CONTROL SHIFT M--Downloads news for offline reading.

Message Window, viewing or sending:

ESC--Closes a message or halts the download of a page.

F3--Starts a find text operation.

CONTROL SHIFT F--Starts a find message operation.

CONTROL TAB--Moves between edit, source and preview tabs. It also
moves forward through frames on a Web page.

Message Window sending only:

F7--Checks spelling.

CONTROL K OR ALT K--Checks names.

CONTROL SHIFT S--Inserts your signature.

CONTROL ENTER OR ALT S--Sends a message.

Help Window only:

ENTER--Activates the help link you are currently on.

TAB--Moves between elements in the help window and moves from one
link to another in a help document.

CONTROL C--Takes you to the Contents tab.

CONTROL S--Takes you to the Search tab.

19.3. Free Agent 1.92

F1--Opens the help Contents sheet. Use ESCAPE to close it.

DEL--Deletes the item at the cursor.

ENTER--To view the selected group or the message in the selected
header..

SPACEBAR--Single key read.

+--Expands a thread.

- (dash)--Collapses a thread.

B--Skips to the next unread message body.

D--Moves down to the next message.

F--Follow-up Usenet message.

H--Shows all header fields.

I--Ignore a thread.

K--Keeps the message with focus when you press it so that Free
Agent will not automatically delete it when it is old. Press K
again to remove the keep icon. 

M--Marks a header in the View window for retrieval.

N--Skips to the next unread message.

P--Posts new Usenet message.

R--Reply to news message via e-mail.

S--Marks all messages in a group or folder as read.

T--Skips to the next unread message in the thread.

U--Goes up to the next unread message.

W--Watch a thread.

Z--Zoom (enlarge) the window.

ALT F4--Exit Free Agent.

ALT ENTER--Brings up a property sheet.

ALT S--Sends an e-mail message.

CONTROL A--Select all.

CONTROL B--View next unread message.

CONTROL C--Copy to the clipboard.

CONTROL F--Find in current window.

F3--Find next.

control m--Create new e-mail message.

CONTROL N--View next unread message.

CONTROL O--Go online.

CONTROL P--Print article.

CONTROL Q--Paste from the clipboard as a quotation. 

CONTROL R--Decodes messages written in ROD13 scrambled text.

CONTROL S--Subscribe to newsgroup.

CONTROL T--View next unread message in the thread.

CONTROL U--Copy the WWW URL.

CONTROL V--Paste from the clipboard.

SHIFT +--Expands all threads.

Shift - (dash)--Collapses all threads.

SHIFT F4--Tile windows vertically.

SHIFT F5--Cascades windows.

********

>APPENDIX 5

GLOSSARY OF COMPUTER AND INTERNET TERMS

20.1. Glossary

Active-X: An object-based Microsoft standard for computer
program building blocks.

Adware: Software displaying advertisements whilst you use it. 

ALT: An alternative system of Usenet newsgroups.

Altavista: A World Wide Web search engine.

Anonymous FTP: A way of getting onto an FTP Website by typing
"Anonymous" as your username and your e-mail address as your
password.

Archive: A storage file(s) in a compressed format.

ASCII (American standard code for information interchange):
The most common way of representing characters in a computer
(as plain text).

Attachment: A file, such as from a word-processor, attached to
the body of an e-mail and sent with it.

AVI (audio video interleaved): A format devised by Microsoft to
cope with the large size of digitised video by compressing it.

Baud: The quantity of electronic symbols that a MODEM can send
down a phone line per second.

BBS (bulletin board system): An electronic bulletin board you
dial up to read messages from and copy messages to.

BCC (blind carbon copy): A person or place where a copy of your
e-mail goes without other recipients knowing about it.

Binary file: A file that contains more than just text.

BIOS (Basic input-output system): This interfaces PC hardware
to the operating system.

BIT: the smallest portion of computer data.

Bitmap: A picture constructed from small dots.

Blogger: Someone who keeps an online diary, known as a blog,
which is accessible to others. "Blog" is short for Web log.

BPS (bits per second): The speed at which data is transmitted,
e.g. through a MODEM.

Broadband: A high speed connection to the Internet, e.g. with a
cable or ADSL modem. 

Browser: A program which lets you navigate around and read
information on the Web.

Byte: A block of eight bits.

Cable Modem: High speed modem for data transfer use via cable
television network systems.

CC (carbon copy): A list of other people who also receive a
copy of an e-mail.

Client: A PC which logs onto and uses the services of a second
computer, known as a server.

CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semiconductor): The memory
that stores a PCs hardware configuration.

Communications Program: A software program which permits your
computer to talk to another computer.

Cookie: A piece of data placed on your computer by a website
you have visited that lets that same site recognise you next
time you visit it.

Dial-Up Network: The TCP/IP provided with Windows 95 to get
you connected to your PPP account.

DLL (Dynamic link library): A shared subroutine library, used
mainly by Windows programs. 

Domain: Part of the official name of a computer on the Net,
e.g. onetel.com or freeserve.co.uk.

Download: to copy a file from a computer on the Internet to
your computer.

Duplex: Full duplex is able to send data in both directions,
e.g. copying to and from the Internet.

Embedded link: A link situated within the text of a Web page
and forming an integral part of the text (see "Link" below).

EMS (Expanded memory specification): Additional memory above
the conventional 640 K DOS limit.

Eudora: An e-mailing program.

FAQ (frequently asked questions): Answers to frequently asked
computer questions.

Fidonet: A network of BBSs throughout the world which have e-
mail addresses.

Firewall: A security system restricting the kinds of in and
outgoing messages on the Internet via a specially programmed
network computer. You can also get them for stand-alone
computers, e.g. Zone Alarm.

Freeware: Freely provided Computer software.

Focus: The part of the screen which currently has the
attention of the program.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol): An Internet-based method of
transferring files from one PC to another.

Gateway: A method of connecting two networks which use
different protocols via a computer.

GIF (graphics interchange format): Graphics files and
pictures.

Gigabyte: One billion bytes or characters of information.

Handle: A user's nickname.

Header: The to, from and subject part of an e-mail message.

Hardware: The solid, physical components of your computer and
computer peripherals, e.g. hard disk, sound card, printer,
 scanner, etc.

Highlighting: Highlighting (also known as "selecting") is the
process in Windows of singling out or focusing attention on a
particular word, line, paragraph, chunk of text, whole
document, etc, to carry out a specific operation on, e.g. to
delete, move, copy, change the case of, etc.
Highlighting/selecting is done by holding down the SHIFT key
whilst moving over the text you want to highlight with
standard Windows keystrokes such as ARROWING up and down,
holding CONTROL down and ARROWING left or right a word at a
time, pressing the CONTROL key followed by the END key to
highlight everything to the end of the document, etc, e.g.
hold down the CONTROL and SHIFT keys and press the right ARROW
key three times to highlight the three words to the right of
the cursor and then press the DEL key to delete these three
highlighted/selected words. 

Home page: The introductory Web page about a person or
company.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language): The computer language that
Web pages are written in.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): The method by which Web
pages are transferred over the Internet.

IDE (Integrated drive electronics): Used with many hard disk
drives which have most of the controller electronics inside
the drive package.

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol): Modern protocol for
dealing with e-mail.

Internet: A network of interconnected networks of computers
which can communicate with each other.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat): Provides the ability to speak to on
another over the Internet in real-time.

Inter-NIC: The Internet Networking Information Centre.

Intranet: An internal microcosm of the Internet which uses
browsers, etc, e.g. within a company.

ISDN (integrated services digital network): A digital phone
system which usually works at either 128 kilobits per second or
64 KBPS.

JAVA: A modern computer programming language. Browsers such as
Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer can access sites
written in JAVA but some specialist browsers for visually
impaired people cannot, e.g. PWWebspeak and IBM Home Page Reader
prior to Version 3.0. 

JPEG: A kind of image file frequently found on the Internet.

Link: A hypertext place on a Web page where a mouse can be
clicked or the ENTER key pressed to obtain more information
from the current site or be taken to other sites on the Web.
Links are underlined and normally highlighted in blue.  

Linux: A publicly-owned version of the Unix operating system
with open source code.

Listproc: A program which handles mailing lists.

Listserv: A program which automatically handles and manages
mailing lists.

Lynx: A text-based Web browser.

Mac-TCP: The Mackintosh's version of a TCP/IP.

Mail server: An Internet computer providing e-mailing
facilities.

Mailing list: A method of mailing all incoming mail to a list
of subscribers to the list.

Majordomo: See Listserv.

MAPI (Mail application programming interface): Microsoft's E-
Mail standard.

Megabyte: One million bytes or characters of data.

MIDI: A method of transmitting music.

MIME (multipurpose Internet mail extension): A method of e-
mailing non-textual files.

MODEM: Short for modulator/demodulator, it permits your PC to
talk over the phone.

Moderator: Someone who vets messages before sending them to an
e-mail list or newsgroup.

Mosaic: An old Web browser.

MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group): This is a video file.

MSN (Microsoft Network): A commercial means of accessing e-
mail, the Usenet and the Web.

Netscape Navigator: A Web browser.

Network: Interconnected computers, known as a LAn (local area
network) if they are in the same building or a WAN (wide area
network) if the computers are further afield.

Newsgroups: Subject areas on the Usenet.

Newsreader: A method of reading and posting messages on Usenet
newsgroups.

Node: A host computer on the Internet.

OLE (Object linking and embedding): A file or program which is
embedded as an object in another file.

PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International
Association): Credit card sized computer accessories, such as
a MODEM or network card.

PDF file (portable document format): A text format for
distributing files, which requires an Acrobat Reader program
to access it. To convert a PDF file to a text file, attach the
PDF file to an e-mail message and send it to:

pdf2txt@adobe.com

After which it will be returned to you by e-mail converted.

Pine: An e-mailing program used with Unix.

PKZIP: A DOS or Windows-based file compression program.

POP (Post Office Protocol): A method of collecting your e-mail
and downloading it to your PC from a mail server.

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol): A method of connecting your PC
to the Internet via the phone line.

Protocol: The accepted rules by which one computer
communicates with another.

Realaudio: A facility for listening to audio programs over the
Net, obtained from www.real.com.

SCSI (Small computer systems interface): An interface standard
for connecting peripherals, including hard drives.

Server: A computer that provides services to other computers,
called clients, on a network.

Shareware: A program provided on the understanding that if you
keep it you pay the requested sum.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol): See PPP.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): A system by which
Internet mail is passed from one PC to another.

Spam: The process of posting unwanted commercial material to a
large number of Usenet newsgroups and mailing lists.

Spyware: Programs designed to collect information from the user's
computer and send it to someone else's computer without their
permission or knowledge. 

Streaming audio: A downloaded sound file from the Net which
starts playing before the download is complete, e.g.
Realaudio.

Tag: A tag is an instruction on a Web page which tells your
browser how to display the text which follows it, e.g. the tag
<B> will make the following text bold.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): The
method networks use to communicate with each other on the Net.

Telnet: A program that lets you communicate with and log into
other computers on the Internet as if you were actually
sitting at that remote computer.

Terminal: A method of connecting a screen and keyboard to a
computer, as in terminal emulation, e.g. Windows 95
Hyperterminal.

Text file: a file that contains text only and no graphics or
pictures.

Thread: A chain of related articles posted to a newsgroup.

Trumpet: A Windows-based newsreader program.

TSR (Terminate and stay resident): DOS programs that reside in
memory so you can run them within other applications.

TWAIN (technology without an interesting name): If a scanner
complies with this standard you can run it from many windows,
graphics and desktop publishing applications.

Unicode: An advanced form of ASCII.

Unix: A computer operating system.

Upload: To copy files from your PC to someone else's computer
on the Net.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator): The addresses which link pages
together on the World Wide Web.

Usenet: A system of myriads of newsgroups.

Virtual reality: A realistic 3-D representation of something.

Virus: A program written to spread between computers and cause
malicious damage to them.

VOIP (Voice-Over-Internet Protocol): A means of phoning people
using your phone handset but being connected over broadband
Internet cabling rather than over a phone company's network. 

WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative): A Website creation
standard outlined by the W3C group to ensure that Websites are
accessible to people with disabilities such as the visually
impaired.

WAV files: Windows sound files ending in .wav.

Webcaster: Someone who broadcasts programmes of music, talk
shows, etc, over the Internet. 

Webmaster: A person who creates, designs and updates Websites
with HTML.

Web Page: Part of a Website which can be displayed on screen.

Website: A collection of Web pages covering a particular topic.

Windows Explorer: An Internet browser from Microsoft.

Winsock: A way that Windows programs work with TCP/IP, e.g.
connecting to the Internet via PPP.

World Wide Web: An information system of millions of
interlinked pages of information on the Internet which you can
jump back and forward amongst, known as "surfing".

XML (Extensible Markup Language): This is an up-and-coming, more
advanced type of HTML which permits the exchange of information
between computers in a way that preserves the structure of the
information , e.g. between databases or exchanging data across
the Internet. XML describes the data on a Web page, rather than
just describing the look of the page. You could, therefore, copy
a whole Web page into a spreadsheet, for instance, and
immediately work with it.  

XMS (Extended memory system): The additional memory commonly
used in memory in 80386 and 80486 PCs above the conventional 1
mb DOS limit.

Yahoo!: A program with Web information and search facilities.

ZIP: A file compressed with PKZIP or WINZIP which has a .zip
extension.

********

>APPENDIX 6

OTHER Tutorials AVAILABLE FROM THIS AUTHOR

21.1. All of the below titles are available as plain text files
as downloads from my Website at:

http://web.onetel.com/~fromthekeyboard

Tutorial titles and brief descriptions

1. "Accessing the Internet from the Keyboard", Volume 1, covering
Web and e-mail protocols, Web Search engines, navigating the
Internet with Internet Explorer 5.0/5.5/6.0, e-mailing with
Outlook Express 5.0/5.5/6.0, Downloading files and programs from
the Net, using a range of Internet search engines, Joining
Internet newsgroups with Free Agent 1.92, configuration and hints
and tips for screenreader users, and much more.

2. "Accessing the Internet from the Keyboard", Volume 2, covering
hints and customisation, Download Managers, Online Auctions,
Internet
Chat Rooms, RealAudio, Internet Shopping and Internet Banking.

3. A selection of separate and individual manuals instructing
visually impaired people how to use off-the-shelf print
scanning/reading programs via screenreaders and the keyboard,
including TextBridge Pro 98, TextBridge Pro 9 and Millennium,
Omnipage Pro 10, 11 and 12, ReadIRIS Pro 6, TypeReader Pro 6 and
Abby FineReader Pro 5, 6 and 7. Each scanner tutorial is an
independent manual in its own right. For example, the titles of
the principal two of these scanner tutorials are entitled: "Using
OmniPage Pro 10, 11 and 12 from the Keyboard to Scan Print" and
"Using FineReader Pro 5, 6 and 7 from the Keyboard to Scan
Print". 

4. "Audio Playing, Copying and Sound Editing From the Keyboard",
Edition 1. This covers Easy CD Creator 4, Sound forge 4.5,
Windows Media Player 6, Windows Recorder, Winamp 2.72,
Freerip.mp3, RealPlayer 8 Basic, and much more.

5. "Audio Playing, Copying and Sound Editing From the Keyboard",
Edition 2. This covers Winamp 5.0X, GoldWave audio editor 5.06,
CDEX ripper 1.51, Basics of burning with Nero 5.5 and much more
introductory and general sound-related information.

6. "Nero Burning-ROM Versions 4,5 and 5.5 from the Keyboard"
(includes Nero INCD 3.3 and Nero Media Player). This covers
burning of data and audio CDs and DVDs withe Nero Burning-ROM and
the Nero Wizard, Saving and reopening compilation templates,
Using Nero online help, burning/cloning whole hard disks and
partitions to CD or DVD, converting MP3 files to other formats,
a good deal of specific configuration and general information on
CD and DVD burning drives and CD and DVD disks, using Windows
Volume Control, and much more.

7. "Nero Burning-ROM 6 Ultra and Enterprise Editions from the
Keyboard" (includes Nero INCD 4). This covers burning of data and
audio CDs and DVDs withe Nero Burning-ROM and the Nero StartSmart
interfaces, Saving and reopening compilation templates, Using
Nero online help, burning/cloning whole hard disks and partitions
or folders to CD or DVD, converting MP3 files to other formats,
ripping sound files to MP3 or MP3 Pro files, a good deal of
specific configuration and general information on CD and DVD
burning drives and CD and DVD disks, using Windows Volume
Control, and much more.

8. "Microsoft Excel 97, 2000, 2002 and 2003 from the Keyboard".
This takes spreadsheet users from the beginner stages of Excel
through much intermediate material and also covers a few more
advanced features. It will give you the skills to use Excel for
home accounting purposes, for keeping self-employed small
business records and for use in the employment workplace. 

9. "Microsoft Outlook 2000 and 2002/XP from the Keyboard". This
is a tutorial instructing on how to use the richly-featured suite
of programs which is a must for anyone seeking employment or
wanting to do advanced e-mailing or calendar and other related
tasks at home or at work. It covers all of the main features of
MS Outlook and many other more technical topics. Covered is:
E-mailing, Calendar, Journal, Tasks, Notes, Contacts, arranging
appointments and meetings, searching, plus customising Outlook
for visually impaired and blind users and appendices of Outlook
general shortcuts and HAL, JAWS AND Window-Eyes hot keys and much
more.

10. "Microsoft Word 97, 2000, 2002 and 2003 from the Keyboard".
Available as a plain text file and instructs on how to use over
45 separate skills in these powerful leading word-processors for
use at home or in the workplace to make you highly productive and
efficient.

********

COMPLiMENTARY CLOSE

Now that the first stage of the odyssey is over, I hope that
following these sections has not been too arduous but, having
been through the Internet beginner's stage a few years ago
myself, I understand just how confusing and inconsistent a place
the Internet and World Wide Web can be. You are likely to have
to revisit several of these sections before you become fully
comfortable with using the Internet but remember that it is
practise which makes perfect.

If you would like to take your Internet surfing skills a step
further into a more advanced and daring stage, I have now written
an other tutorial on the Internet covering several trickier but
potentially more rewarding and exciting topics. This is Volume
2 of Accessing the Internet from the Keyboard. Details in respect
of this publication are to be found in Appendix 7. 

Best Regards,

John Wilson.

********

(End of file.)
   
   


Go Back